Chapter 13 Premodern Humans
The Pleistocene • The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. • Middle Pleistocene (780,000– 25,000 y.a.) • Upper Pleistocene (125,000–10,000 y.a.)
Homo heidelbergensis • Europe and Africa • 800,000-300,000 YA • Regional variations • Cranial capacity 1206 cm3 • Intermediate between H. erectus and H. sapiens • Acheulean tools • China • Dali and Jinnishuan
Homo heidelbergensis skull from Zambia • The Kabwe (Broken Hill) Homo heidelbergensis skull from Zambia. • Note the very heavy supraorbital torus.
Earliest Evidence of Homo Heidelbergensis in Africa • Bodo cranium, the earliest evidence of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.
Steinheim Cranium • Steinheim cranium, a representative of H. heidelbergensis from Germany.
Crania from China • (a) Dali skull and (b) Jinniushan skull, both from China. • These two crania are considered by some to be Asian representatives of Homo heidelbergensis.
Neanderthals • Europe and Southwest Asia • Late Pleistocene • 130,000 – 28,000 YA • Over 400 individuals found • Features • Larger boned, short, stocky • Bipedal • Adapted to cold climate • Occipital bun • Cranial capacity – 1200-1750 cm3 (Avg. 1450 cm3)
Krapina • (a) Lateral view showing characteristic Neandertal traits. • (b) Three quarters view.
Shanidar 1 • Among the individuals buried at Shanidar cave is the skeleton of a one-armed, partially blind, crippled man. • He could not have hunted or gathered food on his own. • Some believe his survival is proof of Neandertal compassion and humanity
Fate of the Neanderthals • Outcompeted • Hunting hypothesis • Climate hypothesis • Did they interbreed with AMH?
Culture of Neandertals • Mousterian industry • Clothing • Subsistence • Fire • Shelter • Intentional burials • Language • Social Support Networks
Three Major Evolutionary Transitions • Transition from early Homo to H. erectus. Geographically limited to Africa and occurred rapidly. • Transition of H. erectus grading into early H. sapiens. Not geographically limited, but occurred slowly and unevenly. • Transition from Archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern H. sapiens.