MANAGEMENT OF ENGINEERING PROJECT MANAGEMENT Work breakdown structure (WBS)
Terms and Definitions • Project Charter • A document authorizing the project manager to initiate and lead the project. • Project Creep • The tendency for the project scope to expand over time due to changing requirements, specifications, and priorities.
Establishing Project Priorities • Causes of Project Trade-offs • Shifts in the relative importance of criterions related to cost, time, and performance parameters. Also, called triple constraint • Budget– Cost • Schedule– Time • Performance– Scope
The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • The WBS picture a project subdivided into hierarchical units of tasks, subtasks, work packages, etc. • The outcome of this hierarchical process is called the work breakdown structure (WBS). • The WBS is a map of the project.
Creating the WBS • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the project) to its subdeliverables, and in turn, their relationships to work packages. • Basically, the WBS is an outline of the project with different levels of detail.
subdeliverable is further divided into work packages. Because the lowest subdeliverable usually includes several work packages. • the work packages are grouped by type of work—for example, hardware, programming, testing. • These groupings within a sub deliverable are called cost accounts. This grouping facilitates a system for monitoring project progress by work, cost, and responsibility.
The Work Breakdown Structure • The WBS is an important document and can be tailored for use in a number of different ways • It may illustrate how each piece of the project contributes to the whole in terms of performance, responsibility, schedule, and budget • It may list the vendors or subcontractors associated with specific tasks
The Work Breakdown Structure • It may serve as the basis for making cost estimates or estimates of task duration • It may be used to document that all parties have signed off on their various commitments to the project
Deliverables • There are many deliverables in a project. • Well defined deliverables eliminate scope creep.
Deliverables • Deliverables are the results produced by tasks. • For example, in house constructions deliverables could be the house foundation, walls, roof, and electrical work, etc.
WBS of PC • simplified WBS for development of a new personal computer project. • See page 112
Integrating WBS with the organization • Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) • Depicts how the firm is organized to discharge its work responsibility for a project. • Identifies organization units responsible for work packages. • Ties the organizational units to cost control accounts.
Coding the WBS for the Information System • WBS Coding System • Defines: • Levels and elements of the WBS • Organization elements • Work packages • Budget and cost information • Allows reports to be consolidated at any level in the organization structure • The most commonly used scheme in practice is numeric indention.
WBS badly designed • Possible reasons
WBS A badly designed WBS can result in: • Incomplete project definition. • Missed deadlines on deliverables or timeline slippage. • Budget cost overruns. • Frequently changing scope • Unusable product • Failure to deliver on some aspects of project scope
Develop a WBS for a project in which you are going to build a bicycle. Try to identify all of the major components and provide three levels of detail. (Exercise- Page -122)
In class exercise • Few more exercises in tutorial