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The Human Body: An Orientation

The Human Body: An Orientation

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The Human Body: An Orientation

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  1. The Human Body: An Orientation P A R T A

  2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another • Gross or macroscopic • Microscopic • Developmental • Physiology – the study of the function of the body parts

  3. Gross Anatomy • Regional – study of the structures in one specific part of the body • Neck, head, etc • Systemic – gross anatomy of the system of the body • Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

  4. Microscopic Anatomy • Cytology – study of the cell • Histology – study of tissues

  5. Developmental Anatomy • Study of the changes in form from conception to physical maturity • Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

  6. Specialized Branches of Anatomy • Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease • Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-ray, MRI, and CT scans • Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a subcellular level

  7. Physiology • Systemic physiology –study of the operation of specific organ systems • Renal – kidney function • Neurophysiology – workings of the nervous system • Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels • Cell physiology • Pathological physiology

  8. Physiology • Understanding physiology also requires a knowledge of physics, which explains • electrical currents • blood pressure • the way muscle uses bone for movement

  9. Principle of Complementarity • Anatomy and physiology are closely related • What a structure can do depends on its specific form • Because enamel is a very hard structure we can masticate hard things

  10. Smooth muscle cell Molecules Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. 2 Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Heart Cardiovascular system Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

  11. Levels of Structural Organization • Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules • Cellular – cells are made of molecules • Tissue –similar types of cells working together • Organ – are made of two or more tissues

  12. Levels of Structural Organization • Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together • Organism – made up of the organ systems. It is the highest level of organization

  13. Integumentary System • Forms the external body covering • Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails • Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

  14. Skeletal System • Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments • Protects and supports body organs • Provides the framework for muscles • Site of blood cell formation • Stores minerals

  15. Muscular System • Composed of muscles and tendons • Provides locomotion, and facial expression • Maintains posture • Produces heat • Provides protection and support

  16. Nervous System • Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves • Is the fast-acting control system of the body • Responds to stimuli • Interprets environmental stimuli

  17. Cardiovascular System • Composed of the heart and blood vessels • The heart pumps blood • The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

  18. Lymphatic System • Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels • Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood • Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream • Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

  19. Respiratory System • Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs • provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide • Produce sounds

  20. Digestive System • Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, etc • Digests and absorbs food • Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

  21. Urinary System • Composed of kidneys, ureteres, urinary bladder, and urethra • Eliminates wastes from the body • Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood • Secrets hormone

  22. Endocrine System • Composed of pineal, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testis • They secrete hormones that will control metabolism, reproduction, growth, etc

  23. Male Reproductive System • Main function is the production of offspring • Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones

  24. Female Reproductive System • Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina • Main function is the production of offspring • Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn

  25. Organ Systems Interrelationships • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2

  26. Organ Systems Interrelationships • The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment • Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen

  27. Organ Systems Interrelationships • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems

  28. Necessary Life Functions • Maintaining boundaries between external and internal environments • Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes • Organismal level – accomplished by the skin • Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility

  29. Necessary Life Functions • Responsiveness – ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them • Digestion – breakdown of ingested food • Metabolism – all the chemical reactions that occur in the body • Excretion – removal of wastes from the body

  30. Necessary Life Functions • Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels • Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells • Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person • Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism

  31. Survival Needs • Nutrients – needed for energy and cell building • Oxygen – necessary for metabolic reactions • Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions

  32. Survival Needs • Normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates • Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs • High altitude low atmospheric pressure low oxygen

  33. Homeostasis • Homeostasis – ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world • The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium • Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis

  34. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Components of control mechanisms: • Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) • Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained • Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli

  35. Homeostatic Control Mechanism • Negative Feedback • the output shuts off the original stimulus • Example: Regulation of room temperature

  36. Positive Feedback • In positive feedback systems, the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus • Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6

  37. Homeostatic Imbalance • Disturbance of homeostasis • Diseases • Aging • Slow down of the body’s control mechanisms increase the risk for diseases

  38. Anatomical Position • Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a

  39. Directional Terms • Superior • Inferior • Anterior • Posterior • Medial • Lateral

  40. Directional Terms • Proximal • Distal • Superficial • Deep

  41. Body Planes • Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts • Midsagittal or medial • Frontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

  42. Body Planes • Transverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior parts • Oblique section – cuts the body diagonally

  43. Anatomical Variability • Humans vary slightly in both external and internal anatomy • Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: • Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place • Small muscles may be missing • Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen

  44. Cranial cavity (contains brain) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Dorsal body cavity Diaphragm Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Key: Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity (a) Lateral view Body Cavities Body Cavities Figure 1.9a

  45. Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Superior mediastinum Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) Pleural cavity Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Diaphragm Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdomino- pelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive visceral Abdomino- pelvic Cavity (peritoneal Cavity) Key: Pelvic cavity (contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity (b) Anterior view Figure 1.9b

  46. Body Cavities • Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions • Cranial cavity – within the skull; encases the brain • Vertebral cavity – runs within the vertebral column; encases the spinal cord

  47. Body Cavities • Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions • Thoracic • Abdominopelvic

  48. Body Cavities • Thoracic cavity is subdivided into • Pleural cavities (2)– each houses a lung • Mediastinum – between the pleural cavities. • Houses esophagus, trachea, etc • Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart.

  49. Body Cavities • Abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm • It is composed of two subdivisions • Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs • Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

  50. Heart Serosa Figure 1.10b