Adrenal glandsaretwopyramid-shapedstructuresthat sit on top of thekidneys, oneglandeachkidney.
Adrenal glandsreleasehormonesthathelpthe body prepareforanddealwithstress.
An adrenal gland has an outerpartcalledtheadrenal cortexandinnerpartcalledtheadrenal medulla.
ADRENAL CORTEX • About 80 % percent of adrenal cortexproducesmorethantwodozensteroidhormonescalledcorticosteroids. • ALDOSTERONE • CORTISOL
Aldosteron • Aldosteronregulatesthereabsorption of sodiumionsandexcretion of potassiumionsbykidneys.
Cortisol • Helpscontrol rate of metabolism of carbonhydrates, fatsandproteins. • Helpspeoplecopewithstress.
Adrenal CortexDisorders • Addisondisease • Cushingsyndrome
AddisonDisease • Weightloss • Lowbloodpressure • General weakness
CushingSyndrome • Obesity • Increasedbloodsugarlevels • Highbloodpressure • Weakening of thebones
ADRENAL MEDULLA • Adrenal medulla is a specializedpart of thesympatheticnervoussystem. Forthisreason, the adrenaline andnoradrenalineit secretes arecalledneurohormones. • Adrenaline is sometimesknownepinephrine. • Thewords adrenaline andepinephrinearederivedfrom Latin andGreekwords, andmean “nearthekidneys”.
Adrenal medullaproducesthe “fightorflight” responsetostress. Thisresponse is thefeeling, youareexcitedorfrightened.
ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES • Adrenaline • Noradrenaline
Adrenaline • causes the heart rate to increase, • respiration rate to increase, • smooth muscle in air ways to relax, • muscles in the arteries to contract and • glucose levels to increase.
Noradrenaline • Noradrenaline or norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter released by the nerve cells. • Its chemical structure as well as function is similar to adrenaline. • It increases bloodpressure by constricting the blood vessels. This action normalizes heartbeat due to which breathing becomes more deep and normal. • The main purpose of Noradrenaline is to normalize life threatening low bloodpressure (acute hypotension).
Noradrenaline deficiency can lead to tiredness, fatique, lethargy and sullenness.