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Earth Science

Earth Science. Ch-1. Earth system science. Brought all of the specialties together to try to explain things Ex) Katrina. Four Branches of Earth Science. Astronomy The study of the Universe Studies everything above the atmosphere Stars, galaxies,…. Geology

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Earth Science

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  1. Earth Science Ch-1

  2. Earth system science • Brought all of the specialties together to try to explain things • Ex) Katrina

  3. Four Branches of Earth Science • Astronomy • The study of the Universe • Studies everything above the atmosphere • Stars, galaxies,…. • Geology • Study of Earth’s surface and interior • Study of the ground but not the water • Erosion, minerals, earthquakes,...

  4. Meteorology • Study of the processes that govern Earth’s atmosphere • Weather, Ozone,….. • Oceanography • The study of the ocean and seas • Currents, chemistry of the water, …….

  5. Models • Used to make things easier to see and understand • Two and three dimensional

  6. Two types of systems • Open system • Free exchange of materials • new is brought in to replace the old • ex) an island • new rain, seeds

  7. Closed system • Where nothing new enters except sunlight • energy in must equal energy out • Keeps the same as what it started with • Need to conserve because what you start with is all you have • Earth is mostly a closed system • does lose hydrogen to space and gain matter from meteors

  8. Impacts of a closed system • Things we need to do • Recycling • search for alternative energy sources • conservation of the environment • protection of endangered species

  9. The Four Spheres of Earth • Atmosphere • Hydrosphere • Geosphere • Biosphere

  10. Atmosphere • Gaseous layer • Provides • oxygen & carbon • absorbs harmful rays • Weather • Unique • only one in solar system that contains oxygen

  11. The earth itself but no water Layers Crust – thin & solid Mantle - solid Outer core – liquid & very hot Inner core – solid but hot enough to be liquid but too much pressure Provides living space magnetic pull minerals we use It is ever changing volcanoes, erosion, mountain building, etc. Geosphere

  12. Hydrosphere • all the water on Earth (all states) • only 3% is fresh water • 70% of that is frozen in the ice caps • ½ of 1% usable to us • Recycled • water cycle

  13. Biosphere • the living things on earth • All the spheres interact to produce one system

  14. Cycles of Earth • Water Cycle • Carbon Cycle • Energy Cycle

  15. Carbon cycle • Carbon is the building block of life • What goes in must come out • Unbalances caused global temperature changes • Enters the atmosphere by • Volcanoes, Fires & burning fossil fuels, breathing etc. • Leaves atmosphere by • Phytoplankton, plants, dissolves in ocean

  16. Energy Cycle • In must equal out • More in than out • Hotter • More out than in • Colder

  17. Solar energy (99.895%) Source nuclear fusion on the sun Drives Winds, ocean currents, waves, weathering of rocks, etc. How much do we receive? Planet – 16000 times more energy per day than used (45 years worth per day) Roof – About three times more energy per day than used Three main sources of energy

  18. Geothermal energy (0.013%) Source radioactive decay Drives Movement of Earth’s plates, earthquakes, volcanoes, rock cycle, etc. Tidal energy (0.002%) Source Pull of the moon Drives slows down earth’s rotation

  19. How to balance the budget • 40% reflected back into space unchanged • called albedo • allows us to see earth • different surfaces and cloud types reflect it • low albedo means it absorbs most of it • ex) forests = 5% - 10% reflection • ex) fresh snow = 80% - 90% • the planet averages 30% • moon = 11% venus = 75%

  20. 60% is used here • runs the water cycle and all others listed above • some is transferred to heat which is radiated back to space • some is stored as coal, oil, or other energy sources • fossil fuel energy is really old solar energy • every time energy changes form some is lost to heat which is radiated out

  21. How we change things • Changing the albedo • Buildings, deforestation, dams, etc. (Changes the energy budget for the area) • Burning fossil fuels • Put more carbon dioxide into the air which decreases the amount of energy allowed to leave • Planting more vegetation • Pulls carbon dioxide out of the air • Damming rivers • changes the length of time it takes for water to go through the water cycle

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