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ANNOUNCEMENTS. LAB PRACTICAL RESCHEDULED: April 28, 29 SECOND EXAM RESCHEDULED: April 22nd Material Covered: Bone, Muscle, Nerve and Circulatory, Lymphatic, and Urinary Systems Conflicts? Exam by appointment: 4/21, 4/23 ** Appointments must be made by 4/17.**

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  1. ANNOUNCEMENTS LAB PRACTICAL RESCHEDULED: April 28, 29 SECOND EXAM RESCHEDULED: April 22nd Material Covered: Bone, Muscle, Nerve and Circulatory, Lymphatic, and Urinary Systems Conflicts? Exam by appointment: 4/21, 4/23 **Appointments must be made by 4/17.** REVIEW SESSION HERE THIS FRIDAY 12:20

  2. ANNOUNCEMENTS Poster Team:Progress report after class Another Great Talk: Robert M. Sapolsky, Stanford University Friday, April 10, at 4PM in ISB 135- Auditorium “Gene Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders:Do Parasites Know More Neurobiology Than We Do?”

  3. ***EXTRA CREDIT***

  4. *BIOLOGY SENIORS* Join us for lunch! 12 Noon Wednesday, May 13th Lawn, Durfee Conservatory

  5. Podocytes: slit diaphragm bind to basal lamina structural support to high pressure capillaries development of glomerulus Damage to Podocytes---> Excess filtration

  6. http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/108/11/1583

  7. http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/108/11/1583

  8. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) NBA superstar Alonso Mourning Families with inherited FSGS - mutations in the ACTN4 gene - encodes α-actinin-4 α-actinin-4: - two identical anti-parallel peptides http://www.bms.ed.ac.uk/research/others/smaciver/Cyto-Topics/alpha%20actinin.htm

  9. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Knockout mice that lacked Actn4 expression - severely damaged podocytes - progressive glomerular disease Mutant α-actinin-4 - aggregation rather than pairing - accelerated degradation Mutant α-actinin-4 aggregates in glomeruli Wildtype α-actinin-4 is evenly distributed in glomeruli (2004) A Protein's Role in Progressive Renal Disease. PLoS Biol 2(6): e194

  10. Minimal Change Disease Loss of polyanions in podocyte processes- - effacement - excess filtration - loss of albumin http://www.gamewood.net/rnet/renalpath/ch4.htm

  11. NEPHRON Glomerulus Initial blood filtration - Capillary tuft - Bowman’s capsule Cortical / medullary tubular system • Control of chemical composition of blood • Urine salt concentration

  12. Cortical / Medullary Tubular System Convoluted Tubules - Proximal - Distal Loop of Henle - descending limb - ascending limb Collecting duct


  14. Medullary Pyramid Papilla

  15. Renal Calyx - Minor - Major Transitional Epithelium Renal Pelvis From: Textbook of Renal Pathophysiology, Franklyn Knox; Harper and Row 1978.

  16. Medullary pyramids • Contain tubules and collecting ducts • Base of pyramids: cortex boundary • Tip of pyramids end in papilla • Calyx: spaces collecting urine from papilla that join and drain into ureter

  17. NEPHRON Glomerulus - initial blood filtration Glomerular Filtration Rate - fluid volume filtered from glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule / unit time. SecretionReabsorption Creatinine, acids, bases Filtrate water, sodium, glucose Excretion

  18. Reabsorption • Most salt and water reabsorbed across proximal tubules

  19. Proximal Convoluted Tubules Specialized for reabsorption -cuboidal to columnar -apical microvilli/brush border -junctional complex -basal striations -larger diameter -star shaped lumen


  21. Proximal tubule ~65% of H2O, Na, Cl, PO4, glucose, amino acids reabsorbed 1. Na actively pumped out basolateral membrane 2. Na crosses apical membrane via facilitated diffusion 3. Cl and water follow Aquaporin water channels Glucose, amino acids cotransport with Na across apical membrane Small peptides and sugars digested on glycocalyx Proximal Tubule-->Intercellular space-->Peritubular capillaries people.eku.edu/ritchisong/bird_excretion.htm

  22. Loop Henle Descending & Ascending limbs thin and thick segments Vary in epithelium descending thick --> simple cuboidal descending thin --> simple squamous ascending thin --> simple squamous ascending thick --> simple cuboidal Vary in permeability and molecular composition descending thin --> highly permeable to water ascending thin --> impermeable to water Countercurrent multiplier

  23. Countercurrent multiplier: Flow of blood and filtrate are in opposite directions Ascending limb: Impermeable to water Active extrusion of Na => increased osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid Descending limb: Permeable to water • water leaves filtrate Water enters Vasa recta www.nature.com/.../v21/n1/full/ng0199_67.html

  24. Distal convoluted tubule cuboidal, extensive basal and lateral invaginations Na reabsorption K secretion Regulated by ALDOSTERONE Collecting Tubule: Clear cell boundaries, large diameter, more nuclei than proximal Thin Tubule: Simple squamous

  25. Collecting ducts Permeability to water controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), secreted by pituitary gland => insertion of aquaporin channels in apical membrane No ADH, water excretion ADH, water reabsorption www.uic.edu/.../bios100/lecturesf04am/lect21.htm

  26. Collecting Ducts Clear cell boundaries, large diameter, more nuclei than proximal

  27. Diabetes Insipidus Inability of kidneys to conserve water results in frequent urination and pronounced thirst What are the possible causes?

  28. Renal Pelvis ----> Ureter -----> Bladder Mucosa: Transitional epithelium - lamina propria Muscularis: Smooth muscle Longitudinal inner layer Circular outer layer Adventitia

  29. 25. URETER

  30. URETER

  31. BLADDER http://www.visualsunlimited.com/browse/vu306/vu306638.html

  32. Urethra Epithelium: Female: Transitional----> Stratified Squamous Male: Transitional----> Stratified or Pseudostratified Columnar Stratified Squamous

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