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Washington & Adams, 1789-1800 The Federal Period PowerPoint Presentation
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Washington & Adams, 1789-1800 The Federal Period

Washington & Adams, 1789-1800 The Federal Period

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Washington & Adams, 1789-1800 The Federal Period

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  1. Washington & Adams, 1789-1800The Federal Period

  2. Establishing a New Government George Washington • 1st president 1789 – 1797 • no political party • set precedents: • called “Mr. President” • served only 2 terms – went back home! • first presidential “cabinet”

  3. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Created court system, Supreme Court • Chief Justice – John Jay with 5 Assoc. • 13 federal District Courts (1 per state) • 3 circuit courts • 1 Supreme Court • Office of Attorney General

  4. Cabinet: State Departments • Sec’y of War – Henry Knox • Sec’y of Treasury – A. Hamilton • Sec’y of State – T. Jefferson • Atty General – Edmund Randolph

  5. Conflicting Visions: Alexander Hamilton • federalist • democracy should be limited to the elite! • wants U.S. to be an industrial power • keep close ties with Britain • wanted Bank of the United States

  6. Conflicting Visions: Alexander Hamilton “Give all the power to the many, they will oppress the few. Give all the power to the few, they will oppress the many.” ― Alexander Hamilton

  7. Conflicting Visions:Thomas Jefferson • antifederalist • limit government to protect liberty • wanted U.S. as an agrarian nation (agricultural) • trusted the common people • against a Bank of the U.S.

  8. Conflicting Visions:Thomas Jefferson • “A wise and frugal government, which shall leave men free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned - this is the sum of good government.” – Thomas Jefferson

  9. Hamilton’s Economic Plan • U.S. gov’t debt of $54 million; states debt $25 million HAMILTON WANTED: • combine ALL debt into a national debt • To create a national bank • gov’t aid to manufacturing

  10. 1. Debt Funding and Assumption • I.O.U.’s from the war had lost value! • Funding: Congress pays federal I.O.Us at face value • Respect for US gov’t • Assumption: federal gov’t would assume states' debts WHY? – to create unity (nationalism)

  11. Plan continued • Pay down debt by selling bonds to investors • Give investors an annual interest • Pay annual interest by raising import tariffs and creating new excise taxes

  12. 2. Bank of the United States Controversy • to be privately owned • Madison opposed as benefit to rich • Jefferson opposed as unconstitutional (strict constructionist) • Hamilton defends constitutionality through doctrine of “implied powers” (loose construction) • …chartered 1791

  13. 3. Gov’t Aid for Manufacturing • Hamilton: Report on Manufacturing (1791)… Federal gov’t should help industry • Madison: NO! it would strengthen federal gov’t, weaken states • Jefferson: NO! rise of cities will destroy agrarian nation • ...Hamilton's recommendations defeated

  14. Hamilton’s Hopes • 1. establish the nation’s financial credibility • 2. gain political support from the nation’s rich • Enrich investors, who would in turn spend money • Overall hope was to stimulate economy and provide for an accumulation of wealth

  15. Opposition to Hamilton • 1. agrarian South had mostly paid off it’s debt and did not see why they should bail out the Northeast • 2. beginning of strife between agrarian South and industrial Northeast • 3. who wants to pay more taxes? • 4. Bank of US is seen as being unconstitutional He was able to get most of his ideas but they agree to move capital to Virginia

  16. Whiskey Rebellion • US tax on excise tax on whiskey, 1791 • Farmers distilled excess grain in liquor—easily transported and more value • 1794--PA farmers protest • Washington sent 12,000 militia • rebellion melted away

  17. Whiskey Rebellion • LESSON LEARNED?? • compare to Shays’ Rebellion…. • Whiskey Rebellion: the CONSTITUTION WORKED!

  18. Indian Troubles on the Northwest Frontier Indian Confederacy led by Little Turtle and supported by GB will thwart American settlement in the Northwest Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) US under Mad Anthony Wayne will defeat Indian Confederation Treaty of Greenville will open up Ohio to American settlers

  19. France v. Britain • 1793, war between FR and GB • Result of French Revolution • Jeffersonians favored France • Hamiltonians favored Great Britain

  20. Proclamation of Neutrality • GB stopped U.S. ships, violated U.S. sovereignty • Jefferson: punish GB! cut off trade • Hamilton: appease GB! because too strong • INSTEAD: Washington issued Proclamation of Neutrality, Apr 1793 • refused to take sides • Saw big picture in that US was not in position to fight a European power; independence was at stake

  21. The Peril of Neutrality • “Citizen Genet” Affair • French diplomat Edmond Genet challenged American neutrality repeatedly in public • issued commissions for privateers • Hamilton v. Jefferson: asked France to recall Genet • greatly divided US citizens

  22. Jay's Treaty With Britain • 1794, John Jay to England: • remove British troops from US soil (finally) • pay for ships/slaves seized • better trade relations • accept US’ neutrality • NOTHING NEW. NOTHING SOLVED….but

  23. Jay's Treaty Sparks Domestic Unrest • newspapers attacked the treaty "Damn John Jay! Damn everyone who won't damn John Jay!! Damn everyone that won't put lights in his windows and sit up all night damning John Jay!!!"

  24. Jay's Treaty With Britain • Americans are angry! • …divide into first two political parties • Jeffersonians: Democratic-Republicans • Hamiltonians: Federalists

  25. Diplomacy with Spain • Spain angry about Jay’s Treaty: responded with: • Treaty of Pinckney’s Treaty • Spanish opened the Mississippi to U.S.! (BONUS!) • Right of storage n New Orleans • good for farmers and westerners

  26. Washington's Farewell • 1796--announced decision to retire • Farewell Address: warns against political parties and against “entangling alliances”

  27. The Adams Presidency OVERVIEW: • one term, 1797-1801 • Federalist • great man, not a great manager

  28. The XYZ Affair • Jay’s Treaty made France angry! • Quasi-War: French fired on U.S. ships! • Adams sent diplomats to Paris • three French officials (X, Y, and Z) demanded a bribe ($250,000) from Americans to discuss the matter • DISRESPECT! – Americans angry! • Begin expansion of American military

  29. Crushing Political Dissent • Federalists (Adams) began building up army • Hamilton sought declaration of war against France to begin operations against dissent • Adams refused to ask Congress for war

  30. The Alien and Sedition Acts • some Federalists feared immigrants would follow Jefferson’s D-Republicans ALIEN ACT: • president could expel any foreigner • Naturalization Act: 14 years residency for citizenship and voting

  31. The Alien and Sedition Acts • criticism grew against Adams SEDITION ACT: • criminalized criticism of the gov’t • Federalist judges enforced Sedition Act

  32. 1798 portrayal of a fight on the floor of Congress during the debates on the Alien and Sedition Acts between Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont and Representative Roger Griswold of Connecticut. The fight started over an insulting reference to Lyon on Griswold's part. Griswold, armed with a cane, kicked Lyon, who grabbed the former's arm and raised a pair of fireplace tongs to strike him. Below are the verses: "He in a trice struck Lyon thrice / Upon his head, enrag'd sir, / Who seiz'd the tongs to ease his wrongs, / And Griswold thus engag'd, sir." “Congressional Pugilists”

  33. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions • Kentucky Resolution (Jefferson) and Virginia Resolution (Madison) --claimed states could nullify unconstitutional federal law

  34. Adams‘s Finest Hour • 1799--Adams breaks with Hamilton • Negotiates settlement with France – the Concordant of 1800 – No Alliance with France • War hysteria against France vanishes • Adams’ actions costs him election in 1800

  35. The Peaceful Revolution: the Election of 1800 • Hamilton’s High Federalists lead campaign to replace Adams with Pinckney • Republican Thomas Jefferson wins • Attempts to unite nation by stressing values shared by each party

  36. Danger of Political Extremism • Election of 1800 one of the most important • Transfer of power from Federalists to Republicans achieved peacefully