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Legally High?

Legally High?

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Legally High?

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  1. Legally High? With Scott Jardine D and G Police Katy MacLeod- Training and Outreach Coordinator- Crew www.crew2000.org.uk

  2. What are legal highs? • Legal Highs are substances made from assorted herbs, herbal extracts and ‘research chemicals’, which emulate the effects of some illegal drugs such as Cannabis, LSD, Cocaine, or others. • These substances are not currently controlled by the Misuse of Drugs or Medicine Acts.” Arthur & Grunert (2005) www.crew2000.org.uk

  3. Terminology • Legal highs • New Psychoactive substances • Novel Psychoactive Substances • Research chemicals • Designer drugs www.crew2000.org.uk

  4. Head shops 47 known head shops in Scotland www.crew2000.org.uk

  5. www.crew2000.org.uk

  6. ONLINE SALES OF NPS (Legal Highs) • Jan 2010 : 170 Online Shops • Jan 2011: 314 Online Shops • Jan 2012: 639 Online Shops • March 2013 : ??? Source: EMCDDA, 2013 www.crew2000.org.uk

  7. “Eric” the chemist www.crew2000.org.uk

  8. Current legislation • UK • Misuse of drugs • Medicines act • Temporary class drug orders • Consumer protection legislation • Ireland- New Psychoactive substances bill • NZ-Psychoactive Substances bill www.crew2000.org.uk

  9. Enforcement No Change to Police action 1/5 contain control drugs* Purity Adulterants Festivals Hospital admissions * Home Office, 2012 www.crew2000.org.uk

  10. Novel Psychoactive substances www.crew2000.org.uk

  11. NPS- how much a problem in Scotland? • We don’t know!! • What we do know.. • Crime survey • Salsus • Global Drug Survey • People often don’t present at drug services • People don’t report/aren’t asked www.crew2000.org.uk

  12. Drugs Crew’s clients present with

  13. Club Drug Clinic

  14. Amphetamine and cocaine replacements Ecstasy replacements Opiate and benzo replacements LSD and psychedelic replacements Cannabisreplacements

  15. www.crew2000.org.uk

  16. The return of MDMA! Source: Images courtesy of SCDEA www.crew2000.org.uk

  17. Ecstasy • Still can find piperazines in Ecstasy tablets-include BZP, mcPP, TMFPP • PMA and PMMA has been found in some ecstasy tablets • More recently AMT/5-IT in tablets Source: Images courtesy of SCDEA www.crew2000.org.uk

  18. Why NPS? • Able to buy online • Other drugs unavailable • Value for money • Quality of other drugs poor • Better quality then illegal drugs • Legal status • Prefer effect • Think they are safer • No access to illegal drugs • Dog detection less • Urine screen detection less GDS, 2012 www.crew2000.org.uk

  19. Synthetic versions often not preferred by users Other drivers for use: Legality Drug tests Ease of purchase www.crew2000.org.uk

  20. Intended effects Escapism Dissocociation/altered perceptions Euphoria Empathy/connection with others Relaxation Feelings of stimulation and energy Connection with music Elevated mood www.crew2000.org.uk

  21. Side effects • Cravings • Agitation • Irritability • Restlessness • Insomnia • Hallucinations • Depression • Anxiety • Paranoia • Crisis mental state • Palpitations • Chest pain • Breathing problems • Headaches • Nausea • Renal issues • Tachycardia • Peripheral Vasoconstriction www.crew2000.org.uk

  22. Ivory Wave poisoned patients NPIS 2012

  23. Presentation of toxicity - symptoms NPIS 2012

  24. Set Effects on the user (experiences & long term) Setting Drug The drug is only one part… Adapted from Norman Zinberg www.crew2000.org.uk

  25. Page 27 I’m not feeling anything… Yeah, me neither. Where’d you get this stuff Steve? A friend of a friend sold it to me, but it hasn’t hit me yet, How ‘bout you Mike? OMG THAT TREE IS EATING THE SKY!!

  26. High risk groups? • Users using to excessive levels • Naive users (young/new to NPS) • Users with underlying health issues • Poly drug users • Injectors Freestock image: http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1334532 www.crew2000.org.uk

  27. Other key issues • Active ingredients unknown • Dose • Duration of using episode • Plain stupidity! www.crew2000.org.uk

  28. Some user perspectives.. “It was like being inside a purple washing machine for 10 hours on high spin”unknown legal high user “Synthetic varieties are surprisingly potent… it’s quite a chemical stone. I much prefer cannabis but I like the fact it doesn’t stink the place out like good grass does.”synthetic cannabinoid user “I thought it was going to be like coke, I didn’t realise it was going to be trippy. I was looking for a high and I got a bloody high all right..”AMT user www.crew2000.org.uk

  29. Internet user forums • Erowid • Bluelight • Pill reports • Drugs Forum • Partyvibes • Hundreds More… www.crew2000.org.uk

  30. Harm reduction • Advice around administration route • Test dosing and dosage information • Avoid poly drug use including alcohol • Considering set and setting • Having a “sitter” • Thinking about safe sex • Getting home safely • Going to sleep on their side www.crew2000.org.uk

  31. Treatment • Drug counselling • Residential treatment • Fellowships and self help • Alternative therapies • Sleep management • Tapering strategies • Prescribing? www.crew2000.org.uk

  32. NPS Working Group set up in May 2012 Partnership Working Briefing Documents Education Inputs Survey Monkey Basic Awareness for professionals App development Conference ED / Mental Health Caffeine Based Drinks Dumfries and Galloway

  33. Crew • Training packages • Information and advice to professionals and staff • Drug monitoring groups • Crew online “My Crew” • Drugs database/Phone App • Ongoing research in trends www.crew2000.org.uk

  34. What can workers do? • Ask about new psychoactive substances • Its ok not to know therefore gain knowledge from service users • Appropriate signposting • Share local trends with DMG groups , Crew, Police and others www.crew2000.org.uk

  35. What does the future hold ? Potential dilemma: Less users and more problems Or More users and less problems (Moro, 2012) www.crew2000.org.uk

  36. Questions? www.crew2000.org.uk

  37. Contact details Katy MacLeod 0131 220 3404 KatyM@crew2000.org.uk Scott Jardine 0845 600 5701 scott.jardine@dg.pnn.police.uk www.crew2000.org.uk

  38. Acknowledgements • Thanks to: • The club drug clinic (London) • Dr Adam Winstock The Global Drugs Survey • Dr. John Ramsay TicTac • Mark Adley (The Drugs Wheel) • SCDEA • James Dear-National Poisons information Service • References: • EMCDDAEU DRUG MARKETS REPORT | A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS • ANNUAL REPORT ON THE HOME OFFICE FORENSIC EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (FEWS)A SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY NEW PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCESI N THE UK www.crew2000.org.uk