Growth and Change Mr. Webster’s Class
Vocabulary • cotton gin – a machine that removes seeds from cotton fiber • capitalism – economic system in which people and companies own the means of production • capital – money or other resources used to create wealth • free enterprise – a type of economy in which people are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want • census – the official count of a population • canal – an artificial waterway • cede – to transfer control of something
Industrial Growth • In colonial times, most Americans lived where they worked (usually a farm). When they needed something, they made it. • In the mid-1700s, people began producing goods through new methods. • In Great Britain, inventors built machines that performed tasks generally completed by humans. • In turn, many people began to leave their homes and farms to work in factories and mills. • This historic change is known as the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution reached the United States around 1800. • The Industrial Revolution impacted New England the most. • Technology was at the heart of the Industrial Revolution. • New Inventions changed the way people made things. • Machines also saved time and money. • Clip
The Cotton Gin • In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which was a machine that removed seeds from cotton fiber. • The cotton gin made cotton production much easier, and therefore it brought about a huge increase in cotton production.
The Rise of Factories • In 1793, Samuel Slater brought over designs from Great Britain to create a water-powered cotton spinning mill in Rhode Island. • Slater’s Mill was the first cotton mill in the U.S., and it marked an important step towards industrialization. • In 1814, Francis Cabot Lowell improved on Slater’s design to begin the factory system, where all manufacturing steps are combined in one place. • Lowell Girls Clip • Flocabulary Clip
Lowell Girls Assignment – worth 25 points • For this assignment, you are to utilize the reading you have been provided to create a 2-page play about the Lowell Mill Girls. Through the play, you are to create an interpretation of what life was like for the girls who worked in the factories at Lowell. You can focus on any aspect of their daily life: work, family, friendship, love, happiness, sadness, equality, inequality, religion, living conditions, working conditions, etc. • I will be grading as follows: • Historical Accuracy and Relevance – 10 points • Followed Instructions – 5 points • Grammar / Punctuation – 5 points • Creativity – 5 points
Free Enterprise • The capitalist economic system of the U.S. helped spur industrial growth. • In capitalism, individuals and businesses own property and decide how to use it. • We also use the term free enterprise to describe the American system. • Business owners produce the products they think will sell the best and make the most profit. Businesses compete for customers, and this competition helps push businesses to improve.
Agriculture Grows • While industrialization took root in New England, most Americans still lived and worked on farms. • Many Western farmers (present-day Midwest) concentrated on raising pork, corn, and wheat. • In the South, cotton was king. The cotton gin allowed planters to grow cotton over a much wider area. • The success of cotton also created a huge demand for slaves.
The Growth of Corporations • In the 1830s, changes in the law paved the way for the growth of corporations. • A corporation is a type of business that has many owners who each own stock in the company. • Large corporations began to appear in this era, and their great size helped drive industrialization.
Growth of Cities • The growth of factories and trade led to the growth of towns and cities. • Many cities developed along rivers because factories could take advantage of the waterpower and easily ship goods to markets. • Cities often featured wood and brick buildings with unpaved streets. Barnyard animals often roamed freely. • Disease and fire were constant threats.
Headed West • In 1790, the first census showed that there were nearly 4 million Americans. • At that time, most people lived in the narrow strip of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. • By the early 1800s, many settlers began moving west.
Daniel Boone • Daniel Boone was one of the earliest pioneers. • In 1775, he and a group of 30 men widened a Native American trail that led through the Appalachian Mountains. • The new trail became known as the Wilderness Road, and it opened up Kentucky for future white settlers. • TV Show Intro
Travel by River • During this time period, river travel was far more comfortable than traveling by road, but moving upstream against the current could be time consuming. • In 1807, Robert Fulton launched the Clermont, which became the world’s first successful steamboat. • Steamboats ushered in a new age of river travel. Shipping goods and moving people became cheaper and faster. • Steamboats also contributed to the growth of river cities such as Cincinnati and St. Louis.
Erie Canal • Steamboats improved transportation but they were limited to major rivers. • In the early 1800s, business and government officials developed a plan to connect New York City with the Great Lakes by building a canal. • After 8 years of hard work, the Erie Canal opened on October 26, 1825. • By 1850, the country had more than 3,600 miles of canals. Canals lowered shipping costs and brought prosperity to town along their routes.
James Monroe and The Era of Good Feelings • In 1816, James Monroe won the presidential election and became the 5th president of the United States. • During Monroe’s presidency, the United States experienced a period of national unity known as the Era of Good Feelings. • James Monroe is often associated with the Monroe Doctrine (1823), which served as a warning to European powers to stay out of American affairs. • Clip
The Missouri Compromise • In 1819, the Missouri Territory asked Congress for admission as a state. At the time, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. • Most settlers in Missouri wanted slavery to be legal there. This would give slave states a slight majority in Congress. • The Missouri Compromise allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state, as long as Maine was admitted as a free state. • The compromise also prohibited slavery north of 36˚30’ north (MO Compromise Line).
West Florida • After the Louisiana Purchase, some Americans believed the purchase included West Florida, although Spain continued to claim this area. • In 1810, a group of Americans captured a Spanish fort in present-day Baton Rouge, LA, and declared West Florida an independent republic. • Later same year, President Madison annexed West Florida into the United States.
The Seminoles of Florida • After the annexation of West Florida, the rest of Florida remained under Spanish control. • Many slaves from the South often fled to Florida, where they joined forces with Seminole Indians. • The Seminole nation emerged from various Native American tribes, primarily the Creek, who lived in Georgia and Alabama.
Florida joins the United States • When the Seminoles and Americans began staging raids against each other, General Andrew Jackson invaded Florida and seized Pensacola and St. Marks. • Realizing they could not beat the Americans, Spain agreed to cede Florida to the United States in 1819 (via the Adams-OnisTreaty). • The treaty officially took effect in 1821. • Clip
What if Florida was still Spanish? • For this assignment, you are to imagine that Spain did not sell Florida to the United States. • What would life in Florida be like? • Would Spanish be the primary language? • Would Florida have its own unique culture, music, and cuisine? • Would Florida have declared independence from Spain to become its own country? • Would it be overrun by Americans immigrants trying to enjoy the warm weather and scenic beaches? • Would it be the vacation destination that we recognize, or would things be different?
What if Florida was still Spanish? – worth 25 pts. • To complete this assignment, you need to create a vision of what Florida would be like had it never been sold to the United States. • Your finished product needs to be 3 paragraphs, and it should address some of the questions you have been provided. • I will be grading as follows: • Paragraph One – 5 points • Paragraph Two – 5 points • Paragraph Three – 5 points • Historical Accuracy / Relevance – 5 points • Creativity – 5 points
Research Assignment – due 2/27 • For this assignment, you are to research a topic that relates to the growth and change that the United States experienced from approximately 1790 to 1840. • You must then create a 3-paragraph paper that explores the topic in depth. To conduct your research, you must consult a historical source and cite the source as well. PLAGIARISM WILL NOT BE TOLERATED! • In addition to your paper, you must also produce an illustration to present to the class. Your illustration can be a poster, a power point presentation, a 3-dimensional likeness, a play, poem, or rap.
Research Assignment – worth 50 points Research Paper – worth 30 points Presentation – worth 20 points Accuracy of Content – 10 points Creativity / Effort – 5 points Followed Instructions – 5 points • Paragraph One - 5 points • Paragraph Two – 5 points • Paragraph Three – 5 points • Accuracy of Content – 10 points • Followed Instructions – 5 points
Review Questions Assignment – worth 20 points • You are to use your textbook (pg. 330-360) to create 10 questions and answers that you feel would make good test questions. • You are to put all of your questions on one sheet of paper, and all of your answers on another sheet of paper. On the answer sheet, you also need to write down the page # where you got your information. • Once you have completed creating your questions and answers, you will submit them to me and I will distribute another student’s questions to you for you to answer. • The first three students to complete the assignment successfully will receive a reward.
Extra Credit Opportunity (due 3/14) – worth 20 points • For this assignment, you are to conduct research and create a list of various historical sites in Florida. For each entry, you need to write at least two sentences that explain the background and relevance of the site you have chosen. Please include your source as well. You can pick and choose whichever sites you would like, as long as you can demonstrate how the site is historically significant. • I will be giving one point for each entry, and you may include up to twenty. • NO LATE SUBMISSIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED!
The Election of 1824 • In the Election of 1824, four separate candidates sought the office of the presidency. • When no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, the decision was sent to the House of Representatives. • As the House prepared to vote, Henry Clay agreed to use his influence as Speaker to help John Quincy Adams defeat Jackson.
John Quincy Adams – 6th President of the U.S.A. • 6th President of the United States • Son of John Adams • Born in Massachusetts • Former Secretary of State • Wrote the Monroe Doctrine • Accused by Andrew Jackson of making a corrupt bargain with Henry Clay • Later served in the House of Rep’s. • Clip
The Election of 1828 • Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams • During the campaign of 1828, both sides resorted to mudslinging, or attempts to ruin their opponent’s reputation with insults. • The Adams campaign questioned whether Jackson was legally married to his wife Rachel, which created a considerable scandal. • Jackson won by a landslide.
Andrew Jackson • 7th President of the United States • Southerner • Popular, self-made man & war hero • First Democratic President • Strengthened the powers of the president • Eliminated the 2nd Bank of the U.S. • Known for the Nullification Crisis and the Indian Removal Act • Clip
Indian Removal Act • In 1830, President Jackson pushed the Indian Removal Act through Congress. • This law allowed the federal government to pay Native Americans to move west. • In 1834, Congress established the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), which was to be the Natives’ new home.
The Cherokee vs. Georgia • Most eastern Native American peoples felt forced to sell their land and move west. The Cherokees, however, refused. • In the 1790s, the federal government had recognized the Cherokee as a separate nation. • The state of Georgia refused to accept the Cherokee’s status, and made Cherokee land a part of the state. • The Cherokee turned to the U.S. Supreme Court.
The Cherokee vs. Georgia • In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee. • President Jackson declared he would ignore the Supreme Court’s ruling, and he refused to enforce it. • Finally, in 1838, the Cherokee were forced to move west.
The Trail of Tears • In 1835, a select number of Cherokee signed the Treaty of Echota and agreed to give up all Cherokee land by 1838. • When the treaty’s 1838 deadline arrived, only about 2,000 (of 17,000) Cherokee had moved west. • President Van Buren ordered the army to move the rest of them. • Since the Cherokee knew that fighting would lead to their destruction, they gave in and decided to relocate.
The Trail of Tears • Between June and December 1838, U.S. soldiers rounded up some 15,000 Cherokee and guarded them as they marched west. • The journey was a terrible ordeal. By the time it was over, about ¼ of the Cherokee population was dead. • This forced journey is known as the Trail of Tears. • Clip
(Second) Seminole War • The Seminole in Florida were the only Native American group to successfully resist removal. • In 1835, the U.S. Army arrived in Florida to force the removal of the Seminole. • On December 28, 1835, a group of Seminole attacked American troops as they marched across central Florida. • Only a few soldiers survived. This is known as the Dade Massacre, and it marked the beginning of the Second Seminole War.
(Second) Seminole War • Between 1835 and 1842, the Seminoles waged war against the United States. • The Seminoles were joined by “Black Seminoles,” who were African-Americans who had escaped slavery in Georgia and South Carolina. • Although the United States won the war, it came at a heavy cost. Many soldiers, civilians, Seminoles, and Black Seminoles lost their lives during the war. • After the war, the Seminoles were forced to move to Indian Territory, although a few managed to escape into the Everglades, where their descendants still live today.
Seminole Wars Assignment • For this assignment, you are to create a timeline / representation of the Seminole Wars. You will need to include each of the critical points that are associated with this time period in Florida history, and you will need to make your representation colorful and creative as well. • I will be grading as follows: • Accuracy of Content – 10 points • Neat / Colorful / Creative – 10 points
Martin Van Buren • 8th President of the United States • First president to have been born a United States citizen • Spoke Dutch as his first language • Van Buren’s presidency is largely associated with the Panic of 1837, which was an financial crisis that led to a depression, or severe economic downturn. • Clip
William Henry Harrison • 9th President of the United States • Hero at the Battle of Tippecanoe • His campaign slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler too.” • First Whig President • During his inauguration, Harrison insisted on delivering his long speech without a hat or coat. He died of pneumonia exactly one month later. • Clip
John Tyler • 10th President of the United States • Born in Virginia • Ran as W.H. Harrison’s running mate in the 1840 election (“Tippecanoe and Tyler too”). • Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency upon the death of the incumbent. • Served in the Confederate House of Representatives late in life • Clip
Oregon Country • In the early 1800s, both the United States and Great Britain claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country. • Fur traders and mountain men were the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country. • Beginning in the 1830s, fur traders and mountain men carved out several routes that played a vital role in western settlement. • The most popular route was the Oregon Trail.
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman • Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa were one of the first settlers to venture into Oregon Country. • In 1836, they built a mission among the Cayuse people. • They wanted to provide medical care and convert the Cayuse to Christianity. • Unknowingly, they brought measles to the mission, which killed many of the Cayuse children. • The Cayuse blamed the Whitmans for the children’s death, and they attacked the mission in 1847, killing the Whitmans and 11 others.
The Oregon Trail • Drawn by reports of fertile land, many Americans took to the Oregon Trail. • In 1843 alone, approximately one thousand emigrants made the journey. • Pioneers making the 2,000-mile voyage packed all of their belongings into canvas-covered wagons and formed wagon trains with other travelers.
Manifest Destiny • By the 1840s, many Americans believed it was the nation’s “Manifest Destiny” to extend its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean. • In 1846, this was partly achieved when the United States and Great Britain agreed to split the Oregon Country at 49˚N latitude. • The portion south of the line was acquired by the United States.
Florida • When Spain transferred Florida to the United States in 1821, Florida became an American territory. • Tallahassee became the capital in 1824. • At that time, there were fewer than 8,000 people living in the territory (including enslaved people). • Later, as news spread of Florida’s fertile land, thousands of new settlers streamed into the area. • The 1837 Florida census reported a population of 48,000, with enslaved people making up almost half of that number.
Statehood for Florida • In 1839, the territory of Florida applied to enter the Union as a slave state. • This caused some difficulty as Congress wanted to maintain an equal balance between slave and free states. • Once Iowa emerged as a free state candidate, Florida’s application was finally approved. • Florida was admitted into the Union on March 3, 1845. In doing so, it became the 27th state of the U.S.A.
Vocabulary • mountain man – an adventurer of the American West • emigrant – a person who leaves his or her country to live somewhere else • Tejano – a Texan of Latin American descent • barricade – to block off • annex – to add a territory to one’s own territory • forty-niner – fortune-seeker who came to California during the Gold Rush • boomtown – a fast-growing community • vigilante – a person who acts as police, judge, and jury without formal legal authority
Texas • In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain. At that time, Mexico controlled the land that is now Texas. • Wishing to increase settlement, Mexico offered vast tracts of land to people who would agree to settle there. • Stephen Austin brought 300 American families to settle in Texas, and his success made him a leader among American settlers. • Before long, Americans greatly outnumbered Tejanos (Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home). • Tensions developed when Americans refused to follow Mexico’s rules.
Texas • In 1830, Mexico issued a decree that closed its borders to further immigration. • American settlers, led by Austin and Sam Houston, tried to make peace with the Mexican leaders, but these efforts failed. • Texans began making plans to break away from Mexico. • In 1835, the conflict grew violent.