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i Habit ™ An experience sampling app to study first-year students. Tim Steenbergh, PhD, Professor of Psychology | firstname.lastname@example.org Brian Fry, PhD, Professor of Sociology | email@example.com Indiana Wesleyan University | Marion, IN www.ihabit4life.com. 1. Acknowledgements.
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iHabit ™An experience sampling app to study first-year students Tim Steenbergh, PhD, Professor of Psychology | firstname.lastname@example.org Brian Fry, PhD, Professor of Sociology | email@example.com Indiana Wesleyan University | Marion, IN www.ihabit4life.com 1
Acknowledgements • Dr. Jason Runyan • Dr. Doug Daugherty • Dr. Lorne Oke • Dr. Don Sprowl • Necole Reno • Chuck Bainbridge • Ali Plutschack • Kate Denlinger • Nick Howard 2
Mobile Technology Context • According to a recent Educause report, mobile technology use by college-age students has increased from: • 1.2% in 2005 to • 62.7% in 2010 (Cited by Rossingin Liberal Education, 2012) 3
Why EMA? So what? During a typical week, I spend ___ per week using e-mail. Less than 1 hour 1 – 3 hours 4 – 6 hours 7 – 9 hours 10 – 12 hours More than 12 hours
What is EMA? Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocols collect data differently than experiments and retrospective self-reports. EMA data collection methods: • repeatedly collect data • on participants’ momentary (or current) states • in their natural or real-life settings (Stone et al. 2007). Ecological: people answer questions in their natural environment Momentary: people report on their current (momentary) behavior and experiences Assessment: researchers are trying to measure something (like cigarette craving, time usage, or spiritual practices)
If it could be boiled down to a onesie… And we record it!
EMA can be… • event-based / user initiated (after run, cigarette craving) • interval-based (top of every hour) • randomly assessed (Again?!)
Methods First Year Students (N=81) PRETEST (Week 2) Self Efficacy | Social Support | Stress No App Control(n=37) RANDOM ASSIGNMENT (n=44) Weeks 3, 8 & 13 POSTTEST (Week 14) Self Efficacy | Social Support | Stress Life Satisfaction | App Ratings
iHabit™ Platform Specs • Runs on iPhone, iTouch or iPad • Free download from iTunes • Visual and/or audible alarms notify user of question • Check In questions can be randomized to gather a representative sample of responses • Branching allows researcher to drill down on relevant variables • End of Day feature works as electronic daily diary • Free Response allows user-initiated data input • Data is automatically stored on device, then uploaded to server when WiFi signal is available • Data is time-stamped
Data collection Upside Downside Can quickly produce overwhelming amounts of data Analysis can be difficult- HLM and time series Momentary data isn’t always a better predictor User fatigue • Easily integrated into daily life- especially for iPhone users • Data collection is automated • Allows both within- and between-subjects analysis
Reactivity: The tendency to change our behavior when it’s measured
Free Responses Some students freely offered comments suggesting reactivity: These surveys make me feel a little guilty that I'm not working out enough or spending enough time with God. I admit that I am doing more of that stuff so I can answer better on the next survey. Even after one day, I'm realizing I need to spend WAY more time alone with God.
Evidence for Measurement Reactivity Research Summary Our limited experience Strong reactivity? No. Some reactivity? Yes. From a research methods perspective: contamination From a human flourishing perspective: reactivity can help people live more thoughtful lives. Some factors may predispose people towards greater reactivity • Studies have not found strong reactivity to drug-use monitoring (Hufford et al. 2002, cited in Shiffman 2009) • Why? Moos (2008) speculates that habituation to monitoring blunts reactivity (cited in Shiffman 2009)
Possible EMA Applications at Your School • First-year student time usage, study habits, etc. • Classroom uses • Responses to intercultural experiences (Chicago) • Residence life satisfaction • Your ideas?
Your next step… • Try it out: • Download iHabit™ from iTunes, select FYE survey • Use it for a couple of days to see how EMA works • Decide what you want: EMA? EMI? Both • Assemble a software development team or go with an established vendor: • ContactInvivodataathttp://www.invivodata.com/ • Contact us or visit http://ihabit4life.com/
For more info contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com or visit: www.ihabit4life.com