HM 02 Conflict Management Conflict, causes, types, management
Content • What is a conflict • Different views • Causes • Management • Reponses to conflict
What is a conflict ? “Conflicts is a disagreement between two or more parties”
Conflict Conflict exists when individuals who depend on each other express different views, interests, or goals and perceive their views as incompatible or oppositional.
Categories of Conflict • International • National – civil • Socio – economic • Political / religious • Organizational • Family • Personal
Different views of the Organizational Conflicts • Traditional • Always harmful • Human relations • inevitable , unavoidable • Modern management • Deficiency in the systems • Positive force for a group to function effectively • Too little and too much is harmful & controlled levels are effective
Conflict • Expressed disagreement—all conflict is expressed verbally or nonverbally. • Conflict can occur only between people who depend on each other. • Conflict involves opposition and is more than just differences. • The perception that our concerns are at odds with those of another • The perception that we and another must reconcile our differences
Principles of Conflict • Conflict is a natural process in all relationships. • Conflict may be overt or covert. • Overt conflict is out in the open and explicit. • Covert conflict is hidden and often unacknowledged. • Passive aggressiveness is aggression that is denied or disguised by the aggressor. • Games are highly patterned interactions in which the real conflicts are hidden or denied.
Principles of Conflict • Conflict may be managed well or poorly. • It can either promote continuing attachment or split a relationship apart, depending on how differences are managed . • It involves intense emotions that we may not know how to handle. • Learning communication conflict skills can help us deal with differences.
Principles of Conflict • Conflict may be good for individuals and relationships. • It allows us to consider other points of views. • It can support our own identity by clarifying how we differ from others. • It expands partners’ views of each other.
Chinese Character for Crisis Danger Opportunity
Causes of Organizational Conflicts • Systems & Personnel • Poor systems • Scarcity of resources • finance, equipment, facilities, • Disagreements • needs, goals, priorities and interests • Poor or inadequate organizational structure • Lack of clarity • in roles and responsibilities • Poor supervision
Causes of Organizational Conflicts • Personal • Difference in : • attitudes, values or perceptions • Poor communication • Lack of teamwork • Over work • Resistance to change • Different approach for common goal
Positives of Conflicts • Enhance room to change • Improve skills to adopt to a situation • Generate energy & activity • Stimulate curiosity & ideas • Eases out tension • Brings out best in people • Leads to clarifications , roles, procedures objectives and forming systems & Policies
Negatives of Conflicts • Brings out instability and chaos • Disrupt the flow of activity • Negatively modifies the organization • Create undue tension unhealthy environment • Tear the organization by piece by piece • Lead to confusion , crisis and disaster
Signs of Conflicts • Body language • Disagreements, regardless of issue • Withholding bad news • Surprises • Strong public statements • Airing disagreements through media • Conflicts in value system
Signs of Conflicts • Desire for power • Increasing lack of respect • Open disagreement • Lack responsibility on sensitive issues • Lack of clear goals • No discussion of progress, failure relative to goals, failure to evaluate the superintendent fairly, thoroughly or at all.
Responses to Conflict • The exit response involves leaving a relationship either by physically walking out or by psychologically withdrawing. • The neglect response occurs when an individual denies or minimizes problems, disagreements, anger, tension. • The loyalty response is staying committed to a relationship despite differences. • The voice response is an active, constructive strategy for dealing with conflict by talking about problems and trying to resolve them.
Responses to Relational Distress Active Destructive Constructive Passive
Social Influences on ConflictCulture • The majority of Mediterranean cultures regard conflict as a normal and valuable part of everyday life. • Many Hispanic cultures perceive conflict as an opportunity to be expressive and dramatic. • In the U. S. the emphasis on individuality makes conflict competitive. • In most Asian countries conflict is condemned and a solution should be found that benefits everyone and creates harmony.
Women Enact loyalty and voice Are taught to put a priority on a relationship Use talk to create and sustain closeness Tend to defer and compromise Men Respond with exit/neglect Place less emphasis on talk Minimize problems May use coercive tactics and force their resolutions Conflict causes more physical and psychological pain Social Influences on ConflictGender
Social Influences on ConflictSexual Orientation • Sexual preference doesn’t seem to be a major influence on how individuals see and deal with conflict. • Gays and lesbians appear to have fewer sexual conflicts and to talk more openly about sexual issues than heterosexuals. • Gay and lesbian partners have an intragender empathy that creates less conflict. • Lesbian couples talk the most about relationships, heterosexual couples the next most, and gay couples the least reflecting gender socialization.
A. Conflict stimulation • Main objective is to improve the existing current situation • Methods • Create competition • Import new people / technology • Change establish procedures / position • Communication
B. Conflict Control • Expansion of the resource base • Relying on rules and procedures • Formation of task forces • Formation of super ordinate goals • Matching personalities
B. Conflict Control…. 6. Share information • by keeping people in the group up-to-date with current issues 7. Express positive expectations about each other 8. Empower each other - publicly crediting colleagues who have performed well and encouraging each other to achieve results 9. Team-building • by promoting good morale and protecting the group's reputation with outsiders 10. Resolve potential conflict • by bringing differences of opinion into the open and facilitating resolution of conflicts
C. Conflict Resolution – process • Identify the problem/ problems • Make sure smooth running of the hospital- Smoothening • Accept deficiencies • Generate options • Positive • Win- win • Peaceful • Resolve the conflict
The Relationship You The Other Person Honor yourself, the other, the relationship!
5 ways to manage conflict • Avoidance • Competition (A) • Accommodation (B) • Compromise (C) • Collaboration (D)
Conflict Continuum • I win, you lose (competition—A) • I lose or give in (accommodate—B) • We both get something(compromise—C) • We both “win”(collaborate—D) A B C D
1. Competition • Plus • The winner is clear • Winners usually experience gains • Minus • Establishes the battleground for the next conflict • May cause worthy competitors to withdraw or leave the organization
2. Accommodation • Plus • Curtails conflict situation • Enhances ego of the other • Minus • Sometimes establishes a precedence • Does not fully engage participants
3. Compromise • Plus • Shows good will • Establishes friendship • Minus • No one gets what they want • May feel like a dead end
4. Collaboration • Plus • Everyone “wins” • Creates good feelings • Minus • Hard to achieve since no one knows how • Often confusing since players can “win” something they didn’t know they wanted
What This Means • Managing conflict means you need to develop several styles and decide which is valuable at any given point of conflict
Tips for Managing Workplace Conflict • Build good relationships before conflict occurs • Do not let small problems escalate; deal with them as they arise • Respect differences • Listen to others’ perspectives on the conflict situation • Acknowledge feelings before focussing on facts • Focus on solving problems, not changing people • If you can’t resolve the problem, turn to someone who can help • Remember to adapt your style to the situation and persons involved
Unproductive Conflict Patterns • Early stages • The foundation for destructive conflict is established by communication that fails to confirm individuals. • Cross-complaining occurs when one person’s complaint is met by a counter-complaint. • Negative climates tend to build on themselves.
Unproductive Conflict Patterns • Middle stages • Once a negative climate has been set, it is stoked by other unconstructive communication. • Kitchensinking occurs when everything except the kitchen sink is thrown into the argument. • Focusing on specific issues resolves conflicts constructively. • Marked by frequent interruptions that disrupt the flow of talk