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Urban Water

Urban Water

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Urban Water

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  1. Department of Hydro Sciences, Institute for Urban Water Management • Global water aspects • Introduction to urban water management • Basics for systems description • Water transport • Matter transport • Introduction to water supply • Water extraction • Water purification • Water distribution • Introduction to wastewater disposal • Urban drainage • Wastewater treatment • Sludge treatment Urban Water Peter Krebs Dresden, 2010

  2. Peter Krebs Department of Hydro Sciences, Institute for Urban Water Management Urban Water 5 Introduction to water supply 5.1 Goals of water supply 5.2 Overview over water supply system 5.3 Water need

  3. Peter Krebs Department of Hydro Sciences, Institute for Urban Water Management Urban Water 5 Introduction to water supply 5.1 Goals of water supply 5.2 Overview over water supply system 5.3 Water need

  4. Task of water supply  „Sufficient Drinking Water of good Quality at any Time “ sufficient how much, how long during dry periods ? good quality hygiene, to be drunk, for toilet flushing, how long ? any time extreme drought, contaminated water spring  Political decision making

  5. Drinking water quality „Drinking water should be appetizing and tempting, colourless, clear, cold, odourless, and perfectly fresh with regard to taste.“ DIN 2000  Implementation via guidelines, threshold values

  6. Limits (i), EU

  7. Limits (ii), EU

  8. Limits (iii), EU

  9. Limits (iv), EU

  10. Peter Krebs Department of Hydro Sciences, Institute for Urban Water Management Urban Water 5 Introduction to water supply 5.1 Goals of water supply 5.2 Overview over water supply system 5.3 Water need

  11. Structure of a water supply system Tight construction Protection zone Spring intake Pressure Storage Purification Water distribution Industry Lake, dam Settlement Water protection Saftey barriers Protection zone Ground water

  12. Regional water supply systems in Germany

  13. Regional water supply system in USA

  14. Consumption and origin of drinking water in Germany 1.400 7.000 6.000 1.200 1.000 5.000 4.000 800 Consumption per year in 106 m³ 600 3.000 400 2.000 200 1.000 0 0 1991 1995 1998 Saxony Bavaria NRW Ground- and spring water River bank filtrate Surface water (Umweltbundesamt (2001), pp. 52ff.)

  15. Peter Krebs Department of Hydro Sciences, Institute for Urban Water Management Urban Water 5 Introduction to water supply 5.1 Goals of water supply 5.2 Overview over water supply system 5.3 Water need

  16. Effects on water need • Variations in consumption • Climate variations (Dry / wet years) • Variations in Economy • Changes in consumption • Trends in population development • Technical development • Comfort and Hygiene • Consumption pattern • Living standard • Law, guidelines • …

  17. Parameters to characterise consumption (i) Qdaverage daily consumption over a year Qhaverage hours consumption at average day Qd,maxmaximum daily consumption of a year Qh,maxmaximum hours consumption at maximums day fdPeak days factor fhPeak hours factor

  18. Parameters to characterise consumption (ii)

  19. Drinking water consumption of private households 28% WC 34% bathing/shower 2% 2% 4% 6% 12% washing cloths 28% 6% 6% personal hygiene 6% 6% wash dishes 6% cleaning 4% watering 12% 2% cooking/drinking 34% 2% cleaning cars