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Schools of Thought

Schools of Thought

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Schools of Thought

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  1. Schools of Thought 6 main Perspectives

  2. Psychodynamic Major Information Project, skits, ch.test Biological Main Information Project, daily act.’s, ch.test Learning/Behavioral Main Information Project, daily act.’s, ch.test Humanistic Major information Project, ch.test Cognitive Major Information Project, ch.test Developmental Major Information Project, ch.test Schools of Thought outline

  3. Outline Continued • We have a chapter Test for each Perspective, just general knowledge, key points, goals, etc. • At the end we will have an essay test where you will read a case study and attempt to describe, explain, predict, and control based on the perspective of your choice or the one that fits it best

  4. Major Information Aims/Goals Historical Background Features of Perspective Limitations Applications Projects Skits Cartoons Case Studies Movie Excerpts Chapter Project Perspective Outline

  5. KEY POINT • We use these perspectives to complete the last four of the five main goals of psychology • Observe, Describe,Explain,Predict,Control. • We use these theories with that idea that they will give us a way to describe, explain, and predict; so that we may intervene (contol) if necessary

  6. Psychoanalysis • Aims/Goals • Believes we think, feel, and behave the way we do because of our unconscious motives

  7. Main Theorists • Sigmund Freud • Heavy influence on sex and the internal drives to satisfy them • Alfred Adler • Split w/Freud, developed own personality theories that encouraged healthy/cooperative individuals/families to pursue social equality • Inferiority Complex • Carl Jung • Also later split from Freud, developed Psychological Archetypes and personal/collective unconscious

  8. Goals of Psychodynamic • To understand our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. • And how those (above) are influenced by unconscious mental processes • Those unconscious mental processes are formed by early childhood experiences

  9. Main Goal • Understand and explain our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in relation to our unconscious mind formed from childhood experiences

  10. Unconscious • According to Freud, largest part of mind of which we are unaware • Contains our instincts, passions, fears, and traumas • These form the basis for neuroses • Neuroses: term for range of disorders • Like hysterias, phobias, compulsions, anxieties and panic disorders.

  11. Ending Activity • Create a neat Chart on a piece of colored copy paper that has Theory, Features, Main Theorists, Main goal, and vocabulary across the top • You should probably not draw rows yet. • Fill in the first column so far for Psychodynamic • And identify; psychodynamic, unconscious, neurosis

  12. Bell Work • Get Computer only if you need to show me a “digital” illustration of how you have been making progress for your project!! • IF you printed off stuff you are fine as well!

  13. Features of Psychodynamic Psychodynamic Structure of Personality

  14. Psychodynamic Structure of Personality • Developed by Freud • Believed mind had 3 basic psychological structures • Id, Ego, Super-Ego

  15. ID • Follows what Freud called the Pleasure Principle • Urge for an immediate release of energy or emotion that will bring personal gratification, relief, or pleasure • Basic Two year old • “I want, I want, I want, I want now!” • Demands pleasure thru instant gratification with no regard for laws, customs, or needs of others • Present at Birth

  16. Ego • Develops b/c a child’s demands for instant gratification cannot be met or b/c meeting them could be dangerous • “Stands for reason and good sense” • Guided by real world principle • Understanding that in real world we cannot always get what we want.

  17. Ego (cont’d) • Seeks to satisfy the appetites of the id in ways that are consistent with real life. • Mediator b.t. Id/SuperEgo • Example • Id lets you know you are really hungry • Ego lets you know there are certain ways more appropriate than others. • With no ego, we would just eat raw hamburger meat to satisfy hunger instead of taking time to cook it.

  18. SuperEgo • Develops throughout early childhood • Functions according to moral principle • Incorporates standards/values of parents and community to form morals • Acts as conscience & floods ego w/ feelings of guilt/shame when we think or do something against society.

  19. You have a date with someone you just picked up. It is 5:30 pm and your reservation to eat is at 7. You just got really, really hungry while waiting at the restaurant. What happens? Id Feed, Feed, Now SuperEgo It is against customs to act like this on a date, it is rude to just gorge yourself Ego Wait until dinner comes and maybe order something that is faster, or an appetizer. Examples: Task #1

  20. Example: Task #2 • You have a test on Friday • Billy is having a raging party Thurs. night. • Id? • Party on Wayne • SuperEgo • Partying is bad 1st off, you need to study for the test to get good grades and go to college • Ego • Study now, and go out with your friends Friday night after doing well on the test.

  21. Activity: Due Friday • Draw Sketches or cartoons portraying the id, ego, and super ego. It could be one big sketch or a series of cartoons

  22. Bell Work • Work on Sketches of Id, Ego, Super-ego • 10 minutes

  23. Movie Example: Task #3 • Id • Keep job, it feeds you, and gets money in pocket • Super Ego • Help lady, you know how and its not illegal • Ego • Just show her some loop-holes to keep job but not draw attention

  24. Movie Examples: Task #4 • Movie Example from Incredibles • Id • Wanting to Finish First and look cool • Super Ego • Parents don’t want found out, you’re a superhero its unfair, etc. • Ego • Finish 2nd/3rd still look cool, but don’t stand out.

  25. Lesson Closing • Give 1 Take 1 Activity • With your 6 o’clock partners you will fill out one of the assigned stages and then after you will go around and teach one section to someone, then be taught another in return. • Page 327

  26. Review • 1st Stage of Psychosexual Development? • Oral • Erogenous zone is? • part of the body from which we get pleasure, and is sexual in orientation • Anal Stage takes place from? • 1-2 yrs. • Anal Stage is based on what? • Strict/Liberal Toilet Training • What are 2 fixations from Oral • Smoking, Chewing nails, tongue piercing • What are 2 fixations from Anal • Anal Retentive • Anal Expulsive • 3rd Stage of P.S Development • Phallic • This is where child grows love for opposite sex parent and rivalry toward same sex • Oedipus Complex • Tired of anxiety w/same sex parent, child begins this process? • Identification • Stage where there is little action w/ erogenous zone • Latent Stage • Last stage (genital) what happens before settling down in mid-twenties in loving relationship • Sexual experimentation

  27. Pyschosexual Theory of Adult Personality • Freud’s idea that our adult personality is formed in childhood as a consequence of psychosexual experiences. • Formed in psychosexual stages from birth to puberty

  28. 5 Stages Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital Failure to resolve conflicts in stages can lead to fixations Each stage (except Latent) has related erogenous zone Erogenous Zone part of the body from which we get pleasure, and is sexual Pyschosexual Theory of Adult Personality

  29. Day 1 – 1 yr. old Erogenous zone centered in baby's mouth. Satisfaction from putting things in mouth to meet demands of ID ID demands are oral, such as sucking, biting, and breast-feeding. Too much or too little stimulation of this stage can lead to: Oral Fixations Thumb-sucking Nail biting Tongue/lip piercing Smokers Engage in these especially under stress Oral Stage

  30. Anal Stage • 2nd Stage (1-2yrs) • Zone moves to anal or bottom • All about how strict/liberal toilet training is • Pleasure derived from ability to control bowels

  31. Anal Stage • Overly strict toilet training • Can lead to an anal retentive personality • Adult who is obsessively neat, tidy, and organized • related to pleasure from holding on to their feces when toddlers • then parents insisting that they get rid of it by placing them on the potty until they perform!

  32. Anal Stage • Liberal Toilet Training • Can lead to anal expulsive personality • Person who wants to share things with you • They like giving things away

  33. Phallic Stage • 3-5 yrs. Old • Erogenous zone moves to genitals • Oedipus Complex Begins • (or is said to) • Love/attachment of opposite sex parent

  34. Phallic Stage • Oedipus Complex • Hatred/Rivarly towards same sex parent • B/C competing for love of opposite sex parent • Love/Attachment towards opposite sex parent. • Leads to process of identification • Identification • Child sets out to resolve anxiety felt by competing w/same sex parent • By imitating/copying/joining in those same sex behaviors (masculine=male; feminine=female) • This is where the child will learn their gender role. • No real fixations are caused by this according to Freud!

  35. Latent Stage • 5-12 years • latent stage b/c nothing psychosexually happens during this time! • Libido is dormant. • No Major Erogenous Zone

  36. Genital Stage • 12- mid 20s • Last stage • Begins in puberty • Time of adolescent sexual experimentation • Successful resolution • settling down in a loving relationship with another in mid 20s

  37. Lesson Closing • Talk about Projects • Page 328: Task # 5 • Little Hans Case Study • Begin Work on Tic-Tac-Toe Projects

  38. Bell Work • Main Goal of Psychodynamic Perspective? • To understand how thoughts/feelings/behaviors are influenced by unconscious mental processes formed by childhood experiences • Main Theorists • Freud, Adler, Jung • Unconscious • Contains our instincts, passions, fears, and traumas • Neurosis • Hysterias, phobias, anxieties, and compulsions • Id operates on what? • Pleasure principle • Seeking Instant Gratification • Ego operates on what? • Real World Principle • Understanding that in real world we cannot always get what we want. • Super Ego operates on what? • Morals Principle • Incorporates standards/values of parents and community to form morals

  39. Defense Mechanisms • Read Hand-out aloud • Tools the ego uses in its job as mediator • Uses when unable to keep both the id/super-ego happy • Not necessarily unhealthy. • Lack of these can lead to problems later in life. • D.M.’s are tools we use unconsciously in life to protect us from the anxieties of life

  40. Lesson Closing • Read aloud the Examples of Defense Mechanisms • With 3 o’clock partner……. • Create a skit for two of the mechanisms assigned you! • Go over skits • Work on Projects

  41. Bell Work Sit with 3 o’clock partner right away Shore up Sketch Stuff Participate in Skits when ready When done w/skits; get out notes packet and be ready to read

  42. Levels of Consciousness • One of M/I functions of Psychodynamic Perspective • Deals with three levels of mind • Conscious • Pre-Conscious • Unconscious

  43. Conscious Level • Small in size • Part of mind that holds what you’re aware of • Able to verbalize these types of thoughts/experiences • Able to think logically as well • Examples • Thoughts, perceptions,

  44. Preconscious • Small/Medium part • ordinary memory. • Information can be readily brought to the conscious • Examples • Memories • Stored knowledge/information

  45. Unconscious • Largest Part (huge!!) • not directly accessible to awareness. • Sort of dump box for urges, feelings and ideas  that are tied to anxiety, conflict and pain. • These are feelings and thoughts that you think have gone away but really haven’t • They remain, influencing your actions and your conscious awareness.  • Where most of the work of the Id, Ego, and Superego take place.

  46. Iceberg Metaphor • Material passes easily back and forth between the conscious and the preconscious. • This material can easily slip into the unconscious. Iceberg metaphor for the mind’s layout: • Only 10% of an iceberg is visible (conscious) whereas the other 90% is beneath the water (preconscious and unconscious). • The Preconscious is allotted approximately 10% -15% whereas the Unconscious is allotted an overwhelming 75%-80%.

  47. SuperEgo Ego Dreams Repressed Feelings ID

  48. Review • This is the level, where you’re able to verbalize information • Conscious • This is the smallest level • Conscious • Largest level of consciousness • Unconscious • Part of mind where information is readily available but not on tip of tongue • Pre-conscious • Memories and stored information are examples • Pre-conscious • Thoughts and Perceptions are examples • Conscious • Urges, anxieties, and/or repressed feelings are examples • Unconscious • Largest level of consciousness, base of ice-berg • Unconscious