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Plant structure and growth

Plant structure and growth

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Plant structure and growth

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  1. Plant structure and growth I. Angiosperm plant body

  2. A. Root system A. Functions B. Root systems 1. fibrous root systems 2. tap root systems C. Food storage Water and minerals Anchor dicots versus monocots Root hairs

  3. Examples pneumatophores prop roots Mangrove swamps

  4. B. Shoot system • Nodes and internodes • 2. Apical (terminal) bud • 3. Axillary buds Apical dominance Axillary bud Bud scales

  5. Modified stems

  6. C. Leaves 1. Function 2. Anatomy of a leaf 1. blades and petioles 2. leaf types

  7. B. Anatomy of a leaf 3. vein patterns 4. other features of leaves

  8. fire herbivory mowing C. Leaves of grass Intercalary meristems Evolutionary pressures:

  9. Modified leaves bracts

  10. Modified leaves

  11. II. 2 categories of tissues A. Meristematic tissues 1. Apical meristem (10 growth) 2. Lateral meristems (20 growth) a. vascular cambium b. cork cambium 3. Intercalary meristems

  12. Meristems

  13. B. Non-meristematic tissues 1. Simple tissues a. parenchyma b. collenchyma c. sclerenchyma collenchyma /lignin 10 and 20 cell walls sclerenchyma sclerids 10 cell walls fibers parenchyma

  14. B. Non-meristematic tissues 2. Complex tissues a. xylem b. phloem c. periderm 20 xylem = wood 20 phloem = inner bark Vascular cambium Outer bark

  15. Vessels and Tracheids

  16. Phloem: stms

  17. III. Tissue arrangements A. dermal, ground, vascular epidermis Herbaceous dicot cuticle dermal ground (cortex and pith) Vascular bundle vascular (xylem and phloem)

  18. Vegetative growth B. 3 stem types 1. Herbaceous dicot 3. Woody 2. Monocot

  19. Apical meristem Apical meristem How a plant grows shoot root

  20. IV. Inside Plants • A. Inside roots • Structures • Primary growth • Water absorption endodermis Dicot epidermis cortex pericycle

  21. A. Inside roots • Endodermis

  22. Pericycle

  23. 2. Primary root growth • Importance of primary growth • Root cap • Root hairs and branches rhizosphere mucigel

  24. 3. Water and mineral absorption Plasmodesmata Transpiration Obstacles to transpiration

  25. B. Inside stems 1. Structures 2. Primary growth 3. Monocot stems

  26. 2. Primary growth

  27. Monocot stems

  28. C. Inside leaves 1. Cellular organization a. epidermis b. mesophyll: two parts palisade cells spongy cells c. veins: phloem and xylem 2. Stomata 3. Conifer leaves 4. Sun leaves and shade leaves

  29. 2. Stomata

  30. 2. Stomata Stomata opening and closing

  31. 3. Conifer leaves hypodermis endodermis Douglas fir thick mesophyll epidermis waxy sunken stomata Western white pine Western redcedar

  32. 4. Sun leaves and shade leaves Sun leaves Shade leaves Explanation thick Cuticle thin low (light) [Chlorophyll] high (dark) Aspect (horizontal/ vertical) vertical horizontal Sunken stomata yes no yes Hairy no

  33. V. Secondary growth • Lateral meristems • Vascular cambium • Cork cambium

  34. B. Formation of secondary growth

  35. C. Other features of wood 1. sapwood and heartwood 2. vascular rays 3. growth rings

  36. D. Conifer and dicot wood Vessels and tracheids Dicot wood Conifer wood

  37. VI. Origin of tissues

  38. The end