Infinitives Seem + infinitive Passive + infinitive

# Infinitives Seem + infinitive Passive + infinitive

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## Infinitives Seem + infinitive Passive + infinitive

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1. InfinitivesSeem + infinitivePassive + infinitive Jelena Basta e-mail: jelena.basta@eknfak.ni.ac.rs

2. Types of infinitives • For the purpose of our class we will need 3 types of infinitive (although there are more than 3 ): always HAVE, never HAS, because this is an infinitive

3. Seem+ infinitive Main clause Dependent clause It seems (that) they own a company. They seem to own a company. The subject of the dependent clause goes first. Then we add the verb SEEM (in the suitable person – here we omitted –S because of the plural). We look at the tense of the verb “seem” and the verb from the dependent clause. If they are in the SAME tense, we use the SIMPLE INFINTIVE after the verb!!!

4. Seem + infinitive Main clause Dependent clause It seems (that) the prices are rising. The prices seem to be rising. First, write the subject of the dependent clause. Then, add the verb SEEM (in the same tense as in the main clause, BUT pay attention to the person!!!). Finally, add the infinitive. If the verb in the dependent clause is in the CONTINOUS aspect, write the PROGRESSIVE/ CONTINOUS infinitive.

5. Seem+ infinitive Main clause Dependent clause It seems (that) he stole the jewellery. He seems to have stolen the jewellery. The same rule again: write the subject of the dependent clause, write the verb SEEM in the suitable tense and person. Finally, if the verb of the dependent clause is in the “older”(Past Simple -stole) tense than the verb in the main clause (Present Simple – seems), use the PERFECT INFINITIVE!!!

6. Seem + infinitive The same rule as in the previous case will be valid for the following sentence: It seems (that) the prices have risen. The priceS seem to have risen. Why? Because the Present Perfect Tense in the dependent clause (have risen) is considered to be “older” than the Present Simple Tense (seems) in the main clause.

7. Seem + infinitive To sum up the rules:

8. Seem + infinitive Take a look at some other cases: It seemed (that) John was a liar. John seemed to be a liar. This example follows the above-mentioned rules. We kept the tense of the verb “seem” (here, it is the past simple). Then, we take a look at the verb in the dependent clause, and see it is in the Past Simple Tense. Since the verbs in the main and dependent clause are in the SAME tense, we used SIMPLE infinitive.

9. Seem + infinitive It seemed (that) the inflation was growing. The inflation seemed to be growing. Here, we had the PAST tense in both the main and dependent clause. BUT, the aspect was different. We had the PAST CONTINOUS tense in the dependent clause. That is why we used the PROGRESSIVE/ CONTINOUS infinitive.

10. Seem + infinitive It seemed (that) the children had broken the vase. The children seemed to have broken the vase. Here we used the PERFECTIVE infinitive because the verb in the dependent clause (had broken) was in the “older” tense than the verb in the main clause (seemed). In the main clause we had the Past Simple Tense, while we had the Past Perfect in the dependent clause.

11. Seem + infinitive To refer to the future, we use the SIMPLE infinitive. It seems they will improve the production process. They seem to improve the production process. We used “SEEM” and NOT “seems” because of the subject “they”. We used SIMPLE infinitive to refer to the action expressed by some future tense.

12. Passive + infinitive The rules for the passive + infinitive construction are the same as the rules for seem+ infinitive construction. Take a look at the sentence: Main clause Dependent clause It is believed (that) they work as managers. Passive Voice – Present Simple Present Simple Tense the same tense

13. Passive + infinitive It is believed (that) they work as managers. They ARE believed to work as managers. Explanation: We used “ARE believed” here because the subject “they” is in plural. Then, we observed the two verbs (the ones in the main and dependent clause). Since BOTH verbs are in the SAME tense (Present Simple), we will use the SIMPLE infinitive. N.B. Even though the verb in the main clause is in the PASSIVE voice, it is still in the present.

14. Passive + infinitive Present Simple- Passive Present Continuous It is said (that) inflation is increasing. Inflation is said to be rising. Here, we chose PROGRESSIVE/ CONTINUOUS infinitive, because the verb in the dependent sentence is in the same tense as the verb in the main clause, BUT in the CONTINUOUS aspect.

15. Passive + infinitive Present Simple- Passive Past Simple It is claimed (that) two companies lost a lot of money. Two companIES ARE claimed to have lost a lot of… “ARE” and NOT “is” because of the plural subject We used the PERFECTIVE INFINITIVE (to have lost) because the verb in the dependent clause is in the “older” tense (past simple) than the verb in the main clause (present simple).

16. Passive + infinitive Past Simple – passive Past Simple It was thought they possessed a real small fortune. They WERE thought to possess a real small fortune. “WERE” (NOT “was”) because of the plural subject SIMPLE infinitive, because both clauses contain the SAME tense (past simple).

17. Passive + infinitive Past Simple –passive Past Continuous It was said they were planning a major investment. They WERE said to be planning a major investment. Both the verb in the main and the dependent clause are in the SAME tense, BUT the verb in the dependent clause is in the CONTINUOS aspect. That is why we used the PROGRESSIVE/CONTINOUS infinitive.

18. Passive + infinitive Past SimplePast Perfect It was thought the board had made a decision. The board was thought to have made a decision. WAS because of the singular subject We used the PERFECTIVE INFINITIVE (to have made) because the verb in the dependent clause is in the “older” tense (past perfect) than the verb in the main clause (past simple).

19. Passive + infinitive And finally, to refer to the future, we use the SIMPLE infinitive. It is believed that the company will enlarge. The company is believed to enlarge.

20. Passive + infinitive We use the passive + infinitive: • when the statement is speculative (the information is not confirmed) e.g. Many investment banks are believed to have suffered losses in recent months. 2. mainly in newspaper reporting e.g. The Hungarian economy is expected to expand by 6% over the next two years. 3. with verbs such as: SAY, THINK, ALLEGE, CONSIDER, BELIEVE, REPORT, RUMOUR, SUPPOSE, KNOW, EXPECT, UNDERSTAND, THINK, etc.

21. HOMEWORK • Course book: Revise the exercise Seem + infinitive, pp. 108-109 • Work book: Do the exercises on pp. 67-69