Chapter 13 • New forces challenged the working of seventeenth-century Western society, where social, political, and family life was organized in a hierarchy of ranks.
Stresses in Traditional Society • Mounting Demands on Rural Life • The Family • Population Changes • Tax Revolts • Pressures on the Upper Orders • Competing Centers of Power • Royal Absolution
Chapter 13 • As king of the most powerful nation in Europe, Louis XIV of France increased the authority of the monarchy; his reign exemplified the development of royal absolutism.
Royal Absolutism in France • Henry IV Secures the Monarchy • Richelieu Elevates Royal Authority • Mazarin Overcomes the Opposition • The Fronde
Royal Absolutism in France • The Sun King Rises • Versailles • Versailles’ Critics • “Classical” Literature • Visual Arts • Colbert • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes • Wars of Aggression • Assessing Louis XIV
Chapter 13 • In the states east of the Elbe, central government was weaker, peasants lost more of their freedom, and the urban middle class declined, although the tendency toward absolutism intensified during the seventeenth century.
The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe • Centralizing the State in Brandenburg-Prussia • Austria Confronts the Ottomans and Expands Its Control • Russia and Its Tsars Gain Prominence • The Romanovs • Russian Expansion • Peter the Great • Russia’s Military Establishment • Conflict with Sweden
Chapter 13 • Because of a history of cooperation in parliament by nobles and land-owning commoners, the struggle for sovereignty in England produced a government with ultimate authority resting in the constitution, not the king.
The Triumph of Constitutionalism • The Nobility Loses Respect • New Wealth • Sumptuary Laws • Protestantism Revitalized • James I Invokes the Divine Right of Kings • Religious Problems • Divine Right • Colonies
The Triumph of Constitutionalism • Charles I Alienates Parliament • Concessions to Catholics • Parliament Gains Power • “God Made Men and the Devil Made Kings”: Civil War 1642-1649 • Charles Captured • Women in War • Levellers • The King Laid Low • Charles Executed
The Triumph of Constitutionalism • A Puritan Republic is Born: The Commonwealth, 1649-1660 • Domestic Distress • Lord Protector • Who Has the Power to Rule? • Thomas Hobbes • The Monarchy Restored, 1660-1688 • John Bunyan • Fiscal Problems • Plague and Fire
The Triumph of Constitutionalism • The Glorious Revolution • William and Mary • England’s Bill of Rights • Royalism Reconsidered: John Locke • Hanover Dynasty • The Netherlands: The Sovereignty of Local Authority • The United Provinces • Dutch Prosperity • Religious Toleration
Chapter 14 • The Scientific Revolution was founded on the idea of acquiring knowledge through skepticism, experimentation, and reasoning based on observed facts.
Questioning Truth and Authority • The Old View • The Earth-Centered Universe • Undermining the Old View • Hermetic Doctrine • Exploration • The Printing Press
Chapter 14 • European scientists uncovered new information about the world around them and different ways of looking at the universe, and embarked on a search for knowledge without limits.
Developing a modern Scientific View • Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton • Nicolaus Copernicus • Tycho Brahe • Johannes Kepler • Galileo Galilei • Isaac Newton • Newton’s Principia
Developing a modern Scientific View • The Revolution Spreads: Medicine, Anatomy, and Chemistry • Paracelsus • Andreas Vesalius • William Harvey • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek • Robert Boyle • The Methodology of Science Emerges • Francis Bacon • Rene Descartes
Chapter 14 • Scientists relied upon interaction with colleagues and the support of patrons to build upon and spread the ideas the ideas of the Scientific Revolution.
Supporting and Spreading Science • Courts and Salons • The Rise of Royal Societies • Religion and the New Science • The New Worldview • The Copernican-Newtonian Paradigm
Chapter 14 • As Europeans applied these scientific ideas about the acquisition of knowledge to other disciplines, a new way of thinking that emphasized reason emerged and characterized the cultural movement known as the Enlightenment.
Laying the Foundations for the Enlightenment • Science Popularized • Teaching Science • Glorifying Newton: Reason and Nature • The Psychology of John Locke • Skepticism and Religion • Pierre Bayle • David Hume • Broadening Criticism of Authority and Tradition • Travel Writings of Montesquieu and Voltaire • History and Progress
Chapter 14 • Using nature as a guide for thought and society, Enlightenment thinkers came into conflict with established ideas, religions, and institutions, and suggested avenues of reform.
The Enlightenment in Full Stride • The Philosophes • Voltaire • Emilie du Chatelet • The Encyclopedia • Battling the Church • Deism
The Enlightenment in Full Stride • Reforming Society • Political Thought: Montesquieu and Rosseau • Economic Ideas: The Physiocrats and Adam Smith • Criminology, Penology, and Slavery • Education • The “Woman Question” • The Culture and Spread of the Enlightenment • Salon Meetings • Bookstores
Chapter 15 • European monarchs came into conflicts as they flexed their military might and sought to satisfy their ambitions through state-building, an attempt to increase their own power and solidify their states.
Statebuilding and War • Rising Ambitions in Eastern Europe • New Leadership in Expanding Russia • Catherine the Great • The Partition of Poland • Forging a Military State in Prussia • Austria Tries to Hold On • The Midcentury Land Wars • The Diplomatic Revolution • Warfare in the Eighteenth Century
Statebuilding and War • Western Europe and the Great Colonial Rivalry • The French Monarchy in Decline • Making the British System Work • Colonies, Trade, and War • The Triangle of Trade • The Slave Trade • Fighting on Three Continents
Chapter 15 • In spite of declining monarchies in Britain and France, royals in other countries maintained their authority by justifying their rule in terms of enlightened absolutism. • Fredrick the Great • Joseph II • Style, Substance, or Survival?
Chapter 15 • Social and economic changes paralleled the ambitious politics and wars in Western societies, especially in the countryside, improving some lives but plunging others into poverty.
Changes in Country and City Life • The Agricultural Revolution • New Crops and Techniques • Enclosures • Manufacturing Spreads in the Countryside: Cottage Industry • More People, Longer Lives • Population Growth • Eighteenth-Century Medicine • Deepening Misery for the Poor • Prosperity and the Bourgeoisie
Chapter 15 • While aristocratic and royal patronage of the arts was still crucial, the audiences for culture expanded as artistic styles and cultural forms were changing and reflected a “cult of sensibility.”
The Culture of the Elite: Combining the Old and the New • The Advent of the Modern Novel • Pride and Sentiment in Art and Architecture • Reaching New Heights in Music • Baroque Music • The Classical Style • The Grand Tour
Chapter 15 • The lower classes had their own forms of culture which helped to foster a common identity and often revolved around religion, festivals, and oral traditions, although literacy was rising.
Culture for the Lower Classes • Festivals and Popular Literature • Gin and Beer • Religious Revivals • Pietism
Chapter 15 • The first major event to upset the social and political stability of the West took place as Britian’s North American colonies fought to free themselves from British rule. • Insults, Interests, and Principals: The Seeds of Revolt • New Commercial Regulations and Taxes • A War for Independence • Creating the New Nation • War for Independence or Revolution?