Instructional Technology Theoretical foundations and my philosophical beliefs
Below are the major psychological theories that have shaped the field of Instruction Technology and influenced my understanding of learning processes Psychological Foundations • Behaviorism • Information Process Theory of Learning • Situated Learning Theory • Gagne’s Theory of Instruction • Constructivism
Psychological Foundations Behavioral Learning Theory Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on observable behaviors and ignores mental activities (Funderstanding, 2001, paragraph 1). Behaviors are reactions to different stimuli. Learning occurs when behaviors receive positive results and are repeated. Important scientists in behaviorism research include • Ivan P. Pavlov (classical conditioning), • John B. Watson • B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)
Psychological Foundations Information Process Theory Information processing theory uses the computer to model human learning. The human mind gets information (attention), processes the information (encoding), stores the information (retention) and gets the information when needed (retrieval). They believe there are three kinds of memory: sensory registers, short-term memory and long-term memory. Information goes from sensory registers to short-term memory which can only hold 5 to 9 chunks of information. Information from short-term memory is then transferred to long-term memory that has unlimited storage capacity .
Psychological Foundations Implications of CIP for Instruction Provide organized instruction. Make the structure and relations of the material evident to learners, such as through concept maps or other graphic representations.Link new material with what is currently known. This provides a sort of mental "scaffolding" for the new material.Recognize the limitations of short-term memory. Use the concept of chunking: don't present 49 separate items, make them 7 groups of 7. Use elaboration and multiple contexts. Arrange for a variety of practice opportunities. The goal is to help the learner generalize the concept, principle, or skill to be learned so that it can be applied outside of the original context in which it was taught.Help learners become "self-regulated." Assist them in selecting and using appropriate learning strategies such as summarizing and questioning (Perry,2003, paragraph 14).
Psychological Foundations Situated Cognition Theory • Situated learning theory proposes that learning is a result of an activity done in its proper environment and with social interaction within the culture. Situated learning theorists believe that one learns a subject matter by doing what experts in that subject matter do. • Principles • Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context, • i.e., settings and applications that would normally involve • that knowledge. • Learning requires social interaction and collaboration
Psychological Foundations Gagne’s Theory of Instruction Gagne’s nine step process that defines the conditions necessary for learning. • gaining attention (reception) • informing learners of the objective (expectancy) • stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) • presenting the stimulus (selective perception ) • providing learning guidance (semantic encoding ) • eliciting performance (responding) • providing feedback (reinforcement) • assessing performance (retrieval) • enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)
Psychological Foundations Constructivism Constructivism is the belief that individual students form knowledge for themselves and don’t rely on what someone else say is true. In constructivism, the student acts as the creator of their own meaning. Their current experiences reinforces and builds on prior experiences if they are similar and challenges prior experiences that conflict. For constructivist, there is no knowledge outside of the learner’s constructed knowledge from experience.
Learning Environments There are two major views about the nature of knowledge and learning. These views have lead to different instructional methods for teaching and have created different learning environments. • Positivism believe that knowledge exists independent of • individuals, That there are absolute truths that exist in the world. • ( Behaviorism and cognitive theories ) • Relativism believe that knowledge is constructed by the • learner; truth is contextual • ( Constructivism )
Learning Environments Direct Instruction • Directed Instruction is a systematic method for presenting material in small steps, pausing to check for student understanding and drawing active and successful participation from all students. (Rosenshine, 1986, p. 60) This model is based on behaviorist theory. • Important teaching functions • daily review • presenting new material • guided practice • corrections and feedback • independent practice • weekly and monthly reviews.
Learning Environments The Distributed Network Learning Framework & Knowledge Spaces conceptual model In a network learning environment, information flows through the network based on decisions made by learner. Information and knowledge flow to where learner needs it. Information from the network is stored locally (memory) if the learner expects it to be of value. Over time learner would optimize the organization of locally stored information. EXAMPLE Learner is a pizza lover. They initially look up pizza phone number via computer. They order pizza and like it, so after several more orders the pizza phone number moves from computer to note pasted on computer for easier access. The pizza phone number will then move to memory which is the fastest access to the phone number thus knowledge has been transferred from network to learner.
Learning Environments Anchored Instruction • The goal of anchored instruction is to create interesting, realistic contexts that encouraged the active construct ion of knowledge by learners. Anchors were usually stories rather than lectures and were designed to be explored by students and teachers. The use of interactive videodisc technology makes it possible for students to easily explore the content. • Principles: • Learning and teaching activities should be designed around a "anchor" • which should be some sort of case-study or problem situation. • Curriculum materials should allow exploration by the learner (e.g., • interactive videodisc programs).
Learning Environments Engagement Theory • Engagement theory is the idea that students must be meaningfully engaged in learning activities through interaction with others and worthwhile tasks. Engagement theory is intended to be used for technology-based learning and teaching because technology offers the most engagement methods. • Engagement theory shares similarities with constructivism, situated learning theory and androgogy. • Similarities with other theories • Constructivism-emphasis on meaningful learning • Situated Learning theory- emphasis on collaboration among peers and a • community of learners • Androgogy- focus on experience and self-directed learning
Learning Motivation Theories The field of Instructional design is assuming more responsibilities in the larger scope of human performance. From this perspective, instructional designers have to understand and identify all factors that influence human performance and design to improve performance. Within this broader scope, understanding motivation is important ( Reiser, Dempsey, 2002, p.86 ). Motivation “refers to a person’s desire to pursue a goal or perform a task, which is manifested by choice of goals and effort (persistence plus vigor) in pursuing the goal”( Reiser, Dempsey, 2002, p.86 ).
Learning Motivation Theories Motivational needs Theory • David C. McClellan proposed that we all have three fundamental needs that exist in different balances. These needs affect how we are motivated and how we attempt to motivate others. McClelland’s theory states that these needs could be changed through training • Fundamental needs • Need for achievement- Seeks achievement, attainment of goals and • advancement. Strong need for feedback, sense of accomplishment and • progress • Need for affiliation- Need for friendships, interaction and to be liked. • Need for power- Authority motivated needs to influence and make an impact. • Strong need to lead and to increase personal status and prestige.
Learning Motivation Theories Learned Helplessness Theory • A theory by Martin E. P. Seligmanbased on cognitive psychology, it states that what one thinks determines their behavior. Seligman explains that depression is a result of pessimistic thinking. Depressed people thought in more pessimistic ways than non-depressed people. Explanatory style was the termed coined to describe the different thinking styles. • Seligman found that these explanations could be rated along three dimensions: • personalization: internal vs. external • pervasiveness: specific vs. universal • permanence: temporary vs. permanent. • He found that the most pessimistic explanatory style is correlated with the most depression. He said we often learn explanatory styles from our parents.
Learning Motivation Theories Attribution Theory • Attribution theory is about how people explain things. We have only two possible explanations for why things happen. • Explanations • Internal Attribution: an internal attribution assigns causality to factors within • the person. The person is claimed to be directly responsible for the event • External Attribution: assigns causality to an outside agent or force. The • outside agent is claimed to have motivated the event. • Attribution theory shows us that people can create new attitudes or beliefs depending upon the explanation they make. If they make internal attribution they tend to change their attitude and beliefs about themselves. With External attributes they are not taking responsibility so they are unlikely to change.
Learning Motivation Theories ARCS Model • John Keller’s ARCS Model for motivation is a systematic process to include motivational factors in the design process of instructional materials. There are four main motivation categories along with sub categories. • Motivation Categories • Attention • Perceptual Arousal • Inquiry Arousal • Variability • Relevance • Goal Orientation • Motive matching • Familiarity • Confidence • Learning requirements • Success Opportunities • Personal control • Satisfaction • Intrinsic Reinforcement • Extrinsic Rewards • Equity
My Philosophical Beliefs My philosophical beliefs about learning and learning environments is based in between positivism and relativism epistemology. My philosophical beliefs are a reflection of my career interest in adult education. I subscribe to Gagne’s theory of instruction and Knowles’ principles of androgogy. I am a strong believer that adult education should be learner centered with teachers acting as facilitators. I believe that assignments and course materials should be based on real world situation, the career path of the learner.
My Philosophical Beliefs Within the positivism epistemology, I favor the cognitive theories more than behaviorism. I believe that learning has an internal process component, our mind, which processes a stimuli and puts out an appropriate behavioral response. Where I defer from relativism is my belief that knowledge exists independent of the learner. I believe there is an absolute truth which we are constantly seeking with our observations, theories and experiments. I subscribe to relativism’s learner-centered approach, and relevant nature of learning content. I like situated cognition theory, engagement theory and distributed network learning framework. I believe that technology can be a way of learning as well as a tool for learning.
References Droar, D. (2004). Motivational Needs. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.arrod.co.uk/archive/article_motivational_needs.php Funderstanding. (2001). Behaviorism. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://www.funderstanding.com/behaviorism.cfm Funderstanding. (2001). Constructivism. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://www.funderstanding.com/constructivism.cfm Huitt, W. (2000). The Information Processing Approach. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pro_dev/teaching_online/how_we_learn/ information.html Kruse, K. (2002). The Magic of Learner Motivation: The ARCS Model. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.e-learningguru.com/ articles/art3_5.htm Open Learning Technology Corporation Limited. (1996). Situated Learning. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.educationau.edu.au/ archives/cp/04k.htm
References Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from. http://www.well.com/user/smalin/miller.html Perry, J.D. (2003). Cognitive approaches I - Basic information processing model. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://education.indiana.edu/%7Ep540/ webcourse/readings SBB. (1996). ATTRIBUTION THEORY. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/attrib.htm Yen, D.H. (1998). Learned Helplessness. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.noogenesis.com/malama/discouragement/helplessness.html Bransford, J.D. & CTGV. (1993). Anchored Instruction. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html Carr, A.M., & Carr, C.S. (2000). The Nine Events of Instruction. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/9events.htm
References Jacobson, M.J., & Levin, J.A. ( 1993). Network Learning Environments and Hypertext: Constructing Personal and Shared Knowledge Spaces. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/TTA/Papers/J&L-Tel-Ed93.html Kearsley, G., & Shneiderman, B. (1999). Engagement Theory: A framework for technology-based teaching and learning. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/engage.htm Reiser, R.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (2002). Trends and Issues In Instructional Design And Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall Bustamante, L., Howe-Tennant, D., & Ramo, C. (1996). The Behavioral Approach. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://facultyweb.cortland.edu/~ANDERSMD/BEH/BEHAVIOR.HTML