Chronology • Begins with no particular event • Seven Year’s War, Industrial Revolution • 1798, France takes Egypt with a small expeditionary force • 1820’s, England tightens control over India • 1830’s, China is forced to open their markets to the west [Opium War] • 1850’s, England and France defeat Russia near its border [Cirmean War]
Chronology continued • US forces Japan to open its markets in 1850’s [Admiral Perry] • American Civil war 1861-1865 [Industrial North over non-industrial south] • 1860-1900, Latin America, Africa, Polynesia colonized to a much larger degree • Era Closes at the outbreak of WWI, why?
Industrial Revolution • Led by Britain, then Western Europe and the United States • Technological change in the form of coal powered engines (then fossil fuels) applied to production. • Automation was steadily applied to processes that had once been labor intensive. Output increased at an exponential rate
Industrial Revolution • Why Britain? Several favorable factors, • natural, • political, • economic, and • intellectual resources • Plus they had a population crisis caused by a revolution in agriculture.
Industrial Revolution • Followed previous European trends of a growing large manufacturing sector and huge advantages in world trade. • Governments supported technological innovation with policies of economic growth, instituting laws to encourage banking, trading, entrepreneurship and inventions. • Europe’s dominance in turn generated investment capital, profits from trade, and ultimately more market opportunities
Industrial Revolution • Origins of Industrialization • Enclosure Movement, Scientific Agriculture • Textiles • James Watt, Steam Engine 1770 • Factory System • Transportation technology: • Steam Ship • Locomotive • Telegraph
Industrial Revolution • Affect on Society and Culture • Mass Migrations • Rapid Urbanization • New Social Divisions erupted onto the world stage • Familial roles change in middle class, women take a step back in the merchant class from the previous era
Industrial Revolution • Middle Class began to embrace education and not apprenticeship as a means to success
Industrial Revolution • Effect upon the West • Increased Military Power with new weapons technology • Standardization of parts • Mass Production • New Forms of Transportation and Communication (Steamship, Railroad, Telegraph!!!) This is the means for the new dominance of Western Imperialism
Suez Canal Suez canal opened in 1869
Industrial Revolution • Effect on the Global Markets was catastrophic • Areas that had been dependant on western goods in exchange for raw materials now were even more dependant • Areas that had previous manufacturing like China, India, and Latin America “de-industrialized” in the wake of their markets being flooded with cheap European goods
Lasting Effects • Eventually the world would be divided into groups that were industrial and those that were not. • Some Countries would seize upon the European model and attempt to industrialize themselves. • Those that succeeded were not subsumed in the oncoming tide. . .
Population Movements • Birth Rate declined as children became less important in the workplace (agriculture and factory) • Urbanization • Slave Trade ended • New Immigrants take the place of the slaves (Asian and European)
Demographic and Environmental Changes • End of Atlantic Slave Trade • New Birthrate Patterns • Disease prevention and eradication • Food Supply
Reactions to Western Hegemony • Incorporation into an expanded Western Civilization with certain modifications on basic western patterns: US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand • Imitation of Western economic success without adopting western systems: Russia and Japan
Reactions to Western Hegemony • Losing territories, but maintaining a weak independent state: China and Ottoman • Colonized outright: Africa, India
Rise of Western Dominance Scramble for Africa
Major Forces in this Era? • Economic. Industrialization • Political. Imperialism • Social. Racism • Cultural. Western
Global Society • Technology: Steam Ships, locomotives, telegraph increased the speed and volume of transport and communication • Suez (1869) and Panama canals (1914) • International Corporations • Cultural Globalization: • Soccer • Hollywood
Western Dominance of Global Society • Economic, Political, Social, Cultural, & Artistic