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Memory Quiz next Friday! (December 7, before POL’s) PowerPoint Presentation
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Memory Quiz next Friday! (December 7, before POL’s)

Memory Quiz next Friday! (December 7, before POL’s)

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Memory Quiz next Friday! (December 7, before POL’s)

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  1. MemoryQuiz next Friday! (December 7, before POL’s) Prepared byJ. W. Taylor V

  2. Three-Stage Model of Memory • Encoding Information into Memory • Retrieving Information from Memory • Forgetting

  3. Three-Stage Model of Memory Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory

  4. The Three-Stage Model • Developed late 1960s • Views memory as composed of three relatively distinct stages, or three “types” of memory Sensory Short-Term Long-Term

  5. The Three-Stage Model

  6. Sensory Memory • Consists of a set of five registers (temporary storage places, one from each sense) • We take a “snapshot” of all incoming sensory information from the physical environment • Sensory memory holds all input temporarily (few seconds) till we attend to it • After a quick interpretation, important info that merits further attention proceeds to short term memory (STM)

  7. My T shirt… • What color is it? • Round or V neck? • Fitted or loose? • If you can answer these questions, you saw and thought about what you saw. • If not, you saw but did not pay much attention

  8. Sensory memory of eyes and ears • Visual sensory memory – ICONIC MEMORY • 1 second duration • Large capacity – your entire field of vision • You pay attention (transfer to STM) to small part • Hearing sensory memory – ECHOIC MEMORY • 3 – 4 second duration • Large capacity – all the sounds around you that are detectable • You only pay attention to one thing (right now, my voice… hopefully)

  9. Iconic Memory – sensory memory registered by the eyes • We briefly store an exact copy of visual information • Less than a second in duration • Very large capacity

  10. Iconic memory has large capacity but short duration • Your mind sees each page individually, and as the page images change, you integrate them into a flowing image • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVsSroq9_WU • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qcPx9bi9d0c • Test your iconic memory with this online game (iPad – flash issue?) • http://playwithyourmind.com/memory-workout-program/iconic-memory-game/

  11. Testing Iconic Memory • The temporal integration procedureinvolves giving two random meaningless dot patterns sequentially at the same visual location with a brief time delay between the two presentations • When the two patterns are integrated, a meaningful pattern is produced

  12. An Example of the Temporal Integration Procedure

  13. Testing Iconic Memory • For a meaningful pattern to be perceived, the two patterns must be integrated somewhere in the memory system • However, if the time delay between the two presentations is greater than one second, no meaningful pattern can be perceived because the image from the first pattern has faded from iconic memory

  14. Testing Iconic Memory • Sperling’s full- and partial-report procedures present participants with a different 3 x 3 matrix of unrelated consonants (a total of 9) for 50 ms across numerous experimental trials • Here is an example: L Z Q R B P S K N

  15. Testing Iconic Memory • In the full-report procedureparticipants had to report the entire matrix • Participants said they sensed the entire matrix but that it had faded from memory before they could report all 9 letters

  16. Testing Iconic Memory • In the partial-report procedure, the participants had to report only one row of the matrix, a row indicated by an auditory cue on each trial • When the auditory cue was given immediately after the brief presentation of the letter matrix, participants recalled the indicated row 100% of the time • When there was a one second delay between presentation of the matrix and the auditory cue, participants’ recall of the cued row worsened

  17. The Three-Stage Model

  18. Short-Term Memory • Information from sensory memory that you pay attention to, so it enters consciousness • Also called “working memory” • A place to rehearse information • From STM it can be transferred to long-term memory (stored) • From long-term memory, it can be retrieved (back to STM) when you need it

  19. Capacity of Short-Term Memory • Humans have the capacity to manage and remember 7+/- 2 (5 to 9) chunks of information in their short term memory • A chunkis a meaningful unit of information • Experts in a given domain tend to have larger chunks for information in their area of expertise, ex chess players • Many numbers (credit card, phone numbers) Are chunked for easier managment