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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory PowerPoint Presentation
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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

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Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

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  1. Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory

  2. Iconic Memory What is the evidence? Subjective experience Objective measurements Judge duration of a light Interference Sperling’s (1960) work capacity decay (forgetting)

  3. Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory also called Precategorical Acoustic Store (PAS)

  4. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in terminal list positions)

  5. Demo

  6. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Suffix Effect or Stimulus Suffix Effect

  7. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and List Type 1.0 P(r) 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 List Position

  8. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and List Type 1.0 No suffix (tap or tone control) P(r) Suffix 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 List Position

  9. Proportion of Errors as a Function of List Position and List Type 1.0 P(r) Suffix No suffix (tap or tone control) 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 List Position

  10. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Suffix Effect or Stimulus Suffix Effect suffix cue to recall hurts performance --a sort of backward mask affects only end positions particularly the final position

  11. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in end list positions)

  12. Echoic Memory Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work present auditory matrix of letters (quickly) task—report letters whole report partial report

  13. Headphones

  14. Headphones “L 2 K” “4 F 8” “9 G X”

  15. Headphones Letters/numbers sound like they are coming from 3 different locations “L 2 K” “4 F 8” “9 G X”

  16. Report all of the letters/digits—whole report participants do okay (but not great)

  17. Partial report -- Light cue signals report from 1 location “L 2 K” “4 F 8” “9 G X”

  18. Whole report – 4.2 letters/digits Partial report – about 1.63 letters/digits x 3 locations = 4.9 letters/digits Partial report superiority Why?

  19. Whole report – 4.2 letters/digits Partial report – about 1.63 letters/digits x 3 locations = 4.9 letters/digits Partial report superiority Why? Relatively fast forgetting.

  20. Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder’s (1972) work Partial report delay report of row (w/ delayed cue) track performance as a function of delay (retention interval)

  21. Probability of Report as Function of Time 1.0 P(r) 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (s)

  22. Probability of Report as Function of Time 1.00 .60 P(r) 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (s)

  23. Probability of Report as Function of Time 1.00 4.9 letters/digits .60 P(r) 4.3 letters/digits (whole report about 4.2) 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (s)

  24. Conclusion: Acoustic info or echo decays quickly (in about 4 s) Important point: Acoustic info fades more slowly than visual info This difference in decay rates is consistent with idea of different visual and acoustic stores

  25. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in terminal list positions)

  26. Demo

  27. 6

  28. 1

  29. 9

  30. 3

  31. 7

  32. 4

  33. 2

  34. 8

  35. 5

  36. 5

  37. Demo

  38. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Presentation Modality 1.0 P(r) 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 List Position

  39. Proportion of Items Recalled as a Function of List Position and Presentation Modality 1.0 Auditory P(r) Visual 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 List Position

  40. Echoic Memory What is the evidence? Modality Effect performance for stimuli presented in one modality better than performance for stimuli presented in a different modality In this case: auditory > visual In this case: Effect occursonly in the end (terminal) list positions

  41. Echoic Memory (Precategorical Acoustic Store) What is the evidence? Interference Darwin, Turvey & Crowder’s (1972) work capacity (auditory span of apprehension) decay (forgetting) Modality Effect (in terminal list positions)

  42. Echoic Memory (Precategorical Acoustic Store) A few problems:

  43. Echoic Memory (Precategorical Acoustic Store) A few problems: 1)Reasoning: Acoustic info fades in about 4 s Acoustic interference should occur for suffixes presented up to roughly 4 s after the final item Suffix effect should disappear after about 4 s

  44. Echoic Memory • (Precategorical Acoustic Store) • A few problems: • 1) Suffix effect obtained after 20-s delay • (Watkins & Todres, 1980)

  45. Echoic Memory (Precategorical Acoustic Store) A few problems: 2)Reasoning: Acoustic info fades in about 4 s Modality effect should occur for retention intervals of 4 s or less Modality effect should not occur after 4-s retention interval

  46. Echoic Memory • (Precategorical Acoustic Store) • A few problems: • 1) Suffix effect obtained after 20-s delay • (Watkins & Todres, 1980) • 2) Modality effect obtained after 20-s retention • interval (Watkins & Watkins, 1980)

  47. Have a good day!