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Protection from Freezing

Protection from Freezing

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Protection from Freezing

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  1. Protection from Freezing Town of Markham Building Standards Department Special Investigations

  2. Ontario Building Code • Sentence of the Ontario Building Code requires; “The bottom of excavations shall be kept from freezing throughout the entire construction period.” • Sentence (1) of the Ontario Building Code requires; “When the air temperature is below 50 C (41 0 F), concrete shall be, (a) kept at a temperature of not less than 100 C (50 0 F) or more than 250 C (77 0 F) while being placed, and (b) maintained at a temperature of not less than 100 C (50 0 F) for 72 h after placing. Building Failure Prevention Program

  3. New Home Purchaser Expectations • New home purchasers assume that their builder will construct their new home in compliance with the building code. • Builders must understand that it is their role to use appropriate building techniques to achieve building code compliance. Code Compliance Quality Customer Satisfaction Service Building Failure Prevention Program

  4. 5. Success 4. Monitor 3. Act 2. Prevent 1. Understand 5 Steps to Success • Builders must take whatever steps are necessary to protect the bottom of excavation and the poured concrete from freezing. Building Failure Prevention Program

  5. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Understanding the effects of frost within the soil and on new concrete is the start of preventing foundation failures. • Damage to structures can result from the differential heaving of soil directly under the foundation, causing cracking and structural distortions. Soil must not be allowed to freeze prior to or during construction of the building or damage to the building due to settlement and/or loss of bearing after thawing may occur Building Failure Prevention Program

  6. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Recently poured concrete for footings and foundation walls exposed to temperatures less than 50 C (410 F) creates the potential for the concrete to freeze during the setting period resulting in either permanent damage or retardation of the strength gain process. Building Failure Prevention Program

  7. Understand - Frost Heave Do not pour concrete on frozen soil Building Failure Prevention Program

  8. Understand - Footing and Foundation Damaged by Frost Heave Building Failure Prevention Program

  9. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Preventing the effects of frost within the soil and the recently poured concrete is the second stage of preventing foundation failures. • You can prevent damage to the foundation by employing appropriate building techniques Building Failure Prevention Program

  10. Prevent • What happens if the soil freezes and footings and foundations are built on top of it? • Construction on top of frozen material will result in costly repairs. Repairs consist of removing the disturbed soil from beneath the footings, repair cracked footings and foundation walls or even replacement of the foundation wall. Each repair will require at least two professional engineering reports to be submitted. • In Markham alone, in 2003 and 2004 over 250 homes required repair due to insufficient frost protection during construction. The cost of each repair was estimated to be $1,100. 250 homes x $1,100 = $275,000.00 Building Failure Prevention Program

  11. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Develop a Frost Protection Plan (FPP) with your geotechnical consulting engineer. • The FPP should account for these items; - Type of soil (frost susceptible - Freezing temperatures (cold and very cold) - Method of frost protection - Type of concrete - Construction schedule - On-site supervision Building Failure Prevention Program

  12. Frost Protection Plan (FPP) Seek advice from a geotechnical engineer for your FPP Develop your FPP Building Failure Prevention Program

  13. Inadequate Frost Protection Plan (FPP) Inadequate frost protection of soil using only straw Building Failure Prevention Program

  14. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Act on your Frost Protection Plan (FPP). • Educate sub-trades • Ensure you Frost Protection Plan (FPP) is in place prior to the arrival of of cold weather and undertaking construction • Ensure all necessary preparation and protecting material is on site. • Monitor your FPP. Your role is to ensure the plan is followed to the letter. • Failure to Act, is failure to comply. Building Failure Prevention Program

  15. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand Act on Your Plan Building Failure Prevention Program

  16. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand Act on Your Plan Use the techniques and materials specified in your FPP. Building Failure Prevention Program

  17. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand Monitor • Monitor construction for compliance with your Frost Protection Plan (FPP). • Your sub-trades must be supervised to ensure they are playing their role in implementing your FPP. • Where your sub-trades fail, you also fail. Building Failure Prevention Program

  18. Frost Repairs • In some instances sections of cracked footings and foundation walls are so badly distorted by frost, sections of the foundation wall must be replaced. Building Failure Prevention Program

  19. Frost Repairs • Expensive repairs; damaged foundation wall as a result of frost heave. What is the cost of this repair? Both a monetary and builder’s reputation. Building Failure Prevention Program

  20. Frost Repairs • Expensive repairs; damaged garage foundation wall as a result of frost heave. P. Eng report x Epoxy injection = $400.00 + Building Failure Prevention Program

  21. More Frost Damage 1. 2 3 4 Building Failure Prevention Program

  22. Success Monitor Act Prevent Understand • Success with implementing your Frost Protection Plan (FPP) means; the fulfill meant of your role of builder as it pertains to protecting the bottom of excavations from freezing. • Success in delivering a product free of defects and of the highest quality. • Your home purchasers will succeed with a new home free of cracks and structural distortions. • Succeed in avoiding expensive repairs, construction delays. Building Failure Prevention Program

  23. Enforcement • The Building Standards Department is prepared to assist in any manner necessary to avoid foundation damage due to frost heave or freezing concrete. • Special investigators will be inspecting construction sites for compliance with the building code. Poor performers will be issued Orders for correction. Building Failure Prevention Program

  24. Success (Home purchaser) Builder engineer Inspector Sub-trade Our Strength is Built Around Success Building Failure Prevention Program

  25. Other Resources • National Research Council of Canada • Soils Manual for Home Builders, Ontario New Home Warranty Program and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, 1996 • ACI, American Concrete Institute, Cold Weather Concreting Building Failure Prevention Program