October 27th, 2011 Perfect, Active System of All Five Conjugations; Reflexive Pronouns; Intensive Pronouns
The Perfect System • Present, Future, and Imperfect tenses all referred to as the “Present System” because they are all formed on the present stem (i.e. 1st Principal Part) – Note: 2nd Principal Part = Infinitive. • The Perfect System (i.e. The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect) all modelled on 3rd Principal Part. • i.e. Laudo, Laudare, Laudavi, Laudatus, a, um. • 3rd and 4th Principal parts are highly varied and must be memorized with the vocabulary.
The Perfect Tenses • Perfect (i.e. Present Perfect) = the simple past (i.e. Caesar conquered Gaul); note the contrast with the Imperfect which connotes ongoing action in the past (i.e. Caesar was conquering Gaul). • Pluperfect (i.e. Past Perfect) refers to an event that has taken place prior to the action of another verb (i.e. When Caesar became dictator he had already conquered Gaul). • Future Perfect refers to an event that will have already occurred relative to another action yet to happen (i.e. When Caesar becomes dictator he will have conquered Gaul).
1st Conjugation in the Perfect, Active SystemLaudo, Laudare, Laudavi, Laudatum
2nd Conjugation, Perfect, Indicative, Active:Moneo, Monere, Monui, Monitum
3rd Conjugation in Perfect, Idicative, Active SystemAgo, Agere, Egi, Actum
3rd Conjugation (io) Verbs in the Perfect SystemCapio, Capere, Cepi, Captum
4th Conjugation Verbs in the Perfect Indicative Active SystemAudio, Audire, Audivi, Auditum
Reflexive Pronouns • Pronouns which refer back to the subject. • i.e. Cicero praised him (“him” = regular pronoun) BUT Cicero praised himself (“himself” = reflexive pronoun). • Cannot serve as subjects of a finite verbs – therefore n0 nominative case; All first and second person reflexive pronouns decline like regular personal pronouns. • Context needed to discern what type of pronoun you are dealing with. • Cf. Wheelock, p. 83.
Declension of Third Person Reflexive Pronouns • Nom -. • Gen – Sui (of himself, herself, itself) • Dat – Sibi (to/for himself, etc.). • Acc – Se (himself, etc.). • Abl – Se (by/with/from himself, etc.). • Nom -. • Gen – Sui (of themselves). • Dat – Sibi (to/for themselves). • Acc – Se (themselves). • Abl – Se (By/with/from themselves). • Note – Declines identically to 2nd person singular reflexive pronoun; Singular and plural are identical; use context.
Reflexive Possessive Pronouns • Possessive pronouns referring to the subject (i.e. Cicero praises his own students). • 1st (meus, a, um – noster, nostra, nostrum) and 2nd (Tuus, a, um – Vester, Vestra, Vestrum) person decline exactly like regular possessive pronouns. • 3rd person possessive reflexive pronoun (suus, sua, suum) declines like any 1st/2nd declension adjective (i.e. Like magnus, a, um); must agree with the noun modified in gender, number, and case regardless of the gender and number of the subject to which it refers; Be careful to distinguish the use of 3rd person reflexive possessive pronouns from the use of nonreflexive possessive pronouns. • Cf. Wheelock, p. 84.
Intensive PronounIpse, Ipsa, Ipsum • Added to a noun to emphasize its significance in a sentence – Cf. Wheelock, p. 85. • Declines just like Magnus, a, um, except for the genitive and dative singular which follows the regular demonstrative pronouns (hic, Ille etc.) – Cf. Wheelock, p. 448.