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Do Now: Observation v. Inference

Do Now: Observation v. Inference

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Do Now: Observation v. Inference

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  1. Do Now: Observation v. Inference Provide 5 observations and 5 Inferences

  2. Chapter 2“One chance to work a crime scene... ONE.”

  3. Eyewitness Testimony • Faulty eyewitness testimony contributed up to 87% of wrongful convictions. -1992 Innocence project

  4. Observation v. Inference Provide 5 observations

  5. Observation v. Inference Provide 5 observations

  6. How information is processed in the brain • Observations • Inferences • Perception is limited and the way we view Info from our senses What We Pay Attention to Perception Short Term memory Long term memory

  7. #1

  8. #2

  9. #3.

  10. What do you notice? • Transparency On • Perception video

  11. #4

  12. Why can Perceptions of witnesses be faulty? • Perception is Subjective • Prejudicial • Emotional state • Upset/anxiety, happy or depressed • Fear at the time of stress • How humans are wired

  13. Perception test video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udxOFMU46Lc&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=tDObotwpOPQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

  14. Perception test video http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=tDObotwpOPQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

  15. Ugly to beauty video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAnRQncZ_uk&NR=1&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active

  16. How to be a good observer We know that we: • NOT inclined to pay attention to details • Make a conscious effort to examine systematically • Filter out unimportant material • Instead cat like data gathering machines • Jump to conclusions • We must make observations • Memories are faulty • Documentation is paramount, • Narrative, Photographs, Sketches

  17. 4.

  18. A. Processing the Crime scene: -What is a Crime Scene? • All areas over which the victim, criminal and eyewitness move during the commission of a crime. • Pathways to and from. • The physical location at which an offense was committed; to include lines of approach and flight. • The area of the crime scene can be relatively small or very large.

  19. Events while approaching the scene • Securing and preserving the scene • Search and collection

  20. What is the ultimate goal of the CSI team? The goal of an investigator is to: • Recognize • Document • Collect evidence at the scene of a crime

  21. Remember Locard’s Exchange Principle? • It is impossible for a perpetrator to commit a crime without leaving or taking something at or from the scene of a crime.

  22. The Seven S’s of crime-scene investigation • Securing the scene • Separating the witnesses • Scanning the scene • Seeing the scene • Sketching the scene, (documenting) • Searching for evidence • Securing & Collecting evidence

  23. Kurt Cobain Facts about Kurt Cobain's death • Found April 8th 1994 dead in his home in Seattle Washington on the second story of his garage (green house) • Shotgun wound to the head. • face was still intact contrary to popular belief • 3 times the lethal dose of heroin in his blood stream • no finger prints on the gun, suicide note, or shell casing [as if they had bin wiped clean]

  24. TheCrimeScene

  25. Tom Grant's sketch of the scene

  26. Objective: Identify The Seven S’s of crime-scene investigation found within your narrative Securing the scene Separating the witnesses Scanning the scene Seeing the scene Sketching the scene Searching for evidence Securing & Collecting evidence

  27. Anything wrong in the excerpt from the Follow Up Report? • Obvious trauma to his head. There is a Remington m-11 20 gauge shotgun between the victim’s legs with the barrel pointed towards his head and his left hand wrapped around the barrel. The shotgun is inverted with the trigger and magazine trap door pointing up. The barrel end is just above his beltline. There is a sent 20 gauge shell casing on top of a brown corduroy jacket which is on top of a beige nylon shotgun case. These are just to the left of the victim and under one of the stainless steel garden trays.

  28. Excerpt from the Follow Up Report

  29. Remington m-11 20 gauge shotgun • The inverted shotgun distinguishing the orientation that relates to the scene diagram • Total length 45 in

  30. Greenhouse door

  31. Inside the Greenhouse • The stool police claim Kurt used to "barricade" himself in the room • greenhouse lock used to back up the story that Kurt "barricaded" himself in the Greenhouse

  32. Suicide Note

  33. IMMEDIATE AND/OR MAJOR GOALS (OBJECTIVES) üCollection of physical evidence • -record Chain of Custody üEstablish that a crime has been committed (corpus delicti _ elements of the crime) üReconstruction of the crime üIdentification / Link suspect to the crime scene üEstablish probable cause

  34. Physical Evidence • Any object that can establish a crime has been committed • can provide a link between a crime and its victim or • between a crime and it’s perpetrator • Direct vs. circumstantial • Physical vs. biological • Class vs. Individual • Trace

  35. Comparison:Two types of characteristics • Class characteristics: • Substances can be associated with a group but not individual source • Blood types: use factors in blood • These can ID suspects at a crime scene • Individual characteristics: • Substances that are related at almost 100% probability • Fingerprints are 1x1060 that 2 peoples are the same

  36. The Crime Scene Investigation team • Police officers: first arrival, DA if warrant was needed • CSi: document the scene +collect evidence, • recorders for: photograph, narrative, sketch • Evidence collectors • Medical examiner/ coroner • Detectives: interview witnesses • Specialists: specialized forensic specialists • Entomology, serology, anthropology

  37. Secure and Isolate the Crime Scene • There are three phases of crime scene management. • Initial Notification and Response Securing, • Searching the crime Scene and Documenting • Disposition These three phases can be identified in 16 basic steps.

  38. Crime scene search case law • LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: • Ability to identify each item of evidence • Describe exact location of evidence • Reconstruct crime scene • Maintain chain of custody • Explain any changes that might have occurred between the collection and preservation of the evidence.

  39. Objective: Role Responsibilities Please assign a minimum of three Responsibilities to each member your team. • 1st Officer (+facilitator) • Recorder • Photographer • Sketch Artist • Narrative • Evidence Collectors

  40. “The Bone Collector” http://www.thebonecollector.com/home.html If at anytime you feel threatened or uncomfortable, feel free to close your eyes! If you feel this approach will not work not you, you may sit in the hallway, Absolutely ALL alone where the murder may still be!

  41. 2. Record the scene • The opportunity to permanently record the scene in it’s original state must not be lost. • Photography • Sketches • Notes

  42. Record the scene: Photography • Conducted before anything else is done to the crime scene. • Crime scene photographs can: • Refresh the memories of investigators and witnesses • Provide powerful evidence to a jury • Details positions and locations of evidence • The crime scene and all physical evidence should be photographed from all angles. • Videotaping of the crime scene is acceptable, not a replacement for 35mm

  43. Record the scene: Photography • Cardinal Rules of Photography • 1. Nothing moves until it is photographed! • 2. Film is cheap -- you can't take too many crime scene photographs. • Once the scene has been photographed, the investigator will need to sketch the crime

  44. Record the scene: Sketches • The Four Keys to Crime Scene Sketch • 1. Dimension • 2. Distance • 3. Context • 4. Relationship Among Items of Evidence

  45. * Record the exact location and relationship of pieces of evidence to surroundings. • * Refresh the memory of the investigator. • * Provide permanent record of conditions not easily recorded. • * Assist prosecutor, judge, and jury to understand conditions at the crime scene. • * Help in questioning suspects and witness. • * Plan raids and roadblocks. • * Help correlate testimony of witnesses. • * Eliminate unnecessary and confusing details. Purposes of Sketch

  46. Record the scene: Rough Sketches

  47. Record the scene: Final Sketches

  48. Systematic searches • Need to be done so that no accusations of a cover up arise or overlook of evidence • Need one person in control to coordinate collection of evidence • Four main types • Spiral • Strip or Line • Grid • quadrant

  49. Four main types • Spiral • Strip or Line • Grid • quadrant

  50. Four main types • Spiral • Strip or Line • Grid • quadrant