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CONCRETE PowerPoint Presentation

CONCRETE

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CONCRETE

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  1. CONCRETE Prepared and Presented by Mauricio Campuzano GK-12 Fellow Stevens Institute of Technology What is it good for?

  2. Concrete: “A strong, hard, building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water” In 1824, English inventor, Joseph Aspdin invented Portland Cement What is it?

  3. Oldest known concrete found in Egyptian pyramids (~500BC) • Romans also used a form of concrete • The dome of the Pantheon is 4,535metric tons of concrete! Ancient Concrete

  4. Additives in Opus caementicium (a.k.a Roman Concrete) • Volcanic ash allowed concrete to set under water • Horse hair made the mixture less likely to crack during hardening • Blood was added to strengthen the concrete against frost More Ancient Stuff

  5. Water and cement combine in a process called hydration, Ca3SiO5 + H2O → (CaO)·(SiO2)·(H2O)(gel) + Ca(OH)2 • “Inorganic chemical reaction where water adds tothe crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral.” • Cement paste coats & binds the aggregate; 90% cured by ~ 3 wks. • Not enough paste: • Produce rough, honeycombed surfaces and porous concrete • Too much paste: • Produce a smooth surface, but resulting concrete is likely to shrink more and be uneconomical How Does it Work?

  6. “Weight” Classification • Lightweight, < 1800 kg/m3 • Normal-weight, 2400 kg/m3 • Heavyweight, > 3200 kg/m3 • Prestressed concrete • Precast concrete • Reinforced concrete Types of Concrete

  7. Added before or during mixing of cement, water, and aggregates to enhance one or more aspects of concrete • Air-entraining: increases durability & workability • Water-reducing: more consistent setting-time • Retarding: Speed up hydration; used to counteract the accelerating effect of hot weather on concrete • Accelerating: Slow down hydration; reduce the time required for proper curing and protection, and speed up the start of finishing operations. Particularly useful in cold weather • Plasticizers: increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete • Others include Pigments, Corrosion-inhibitors Admixtures

  8. Developed in the late 19th century to overcome problems of sheer stresses/strains • Concrete is strong in compression, but weak with tension • Reinforced concrete solves this problem by adding either steel reinforcing bars,steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads. Reinforced Concrete

  9. Reinforced Concrete

  10. Everywhere! • “Concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural (load bearing) element.” • Used in roads, tunnels, sewers, building, etc. Where is it?

  11. LiTraCon • “light transmitting concrete,” this is a translucent concrete • Developed in 2001 by ÁronLosoncziin collaboration with scientists as the technical University of Budapest • Made of fine concrete embedded with optical glass fibers Advances in Concrete

  12. Carbon Nano-fiber Reinforced Concrete • Scientists are looking to embed these fibers in concrete to strengthen concrete, limit cracks • CNFs and CNTs are amongst the strongest and stiffest materials known Advances in Concrete

  13. http://en.wikipedia.org • http://www.cement.org/basics • http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/materialsgrp/ • http://arch.umd.edu/Tech/Tech_III/Lectures/Concrete_Construction.pdf • http://www.azonano.com/default.asp • http://www.litracon.hu/ • http://rip.trb.org/browse/dproject.asp?n=20258 • http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/concrete.html References