March 18 • Learning Target: examine the origins of the Civil Rights movement, discussing change and continuity throughout US History. • Success Criteria: experience literacy testing from the 1950s to understand the impact of disenfranchisement on minorities in America. • Activity: • Warm-Up • Literacy Test • Civil Rights Discussion • Civil Rights Graphic Organizer
Struggle for Equal Rights During the 1960s many groups – including women, the young, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans – became vocal about their demands for a more equal and diverse American society.
Civil Rights Amendments • During the early years of our nation, slavery was permitted. • After the Civil War ideas about equality began to change • Changes became law with constitutional amendments. • 13thAmendment – (1865) abolished slavery • 14thAmendment – (1868) provided for equal protection under the law and gave those born here citizenship. • 15th Amendment – (1870) gave former male slaves suffrage or the right to vote. These amendments to the Constitution were the foundation for the Civil Rights Movement of the Twentieth Century.
The Truman Years, 1945-1953 • In 1947, Jackie Robinson, the grandson of a slave, became the first African American to play Professional Baseball. • “42” opened the door for many African Americans and other minorities in different fields of sports, entertainment, and business. • The following year Pres. Truman issued executive order 9981 • Desegregatedthe military and ended discrimination in hiring practices by federal government.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 • The Supreme Court decision of ‘Plessy v. Ferguson’ upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws. • The Court ruled ‘separate but equal’ was constitutional. • States could legally provide segregated facilities to different races, so long as they were equal in quality. • Although schools were supposed to be equal, most schools in the South were greatly inferior to white schools. • NAACP lawyers began challenging this doctrine in the court system.
Sweatt v. Painter, 1950 • Sweatt v. Painter: a case won by the NAACP • Involved the right of Herman Sweatt, an African American, to attend Law School at the University of Texas. • UT had even created a separate law school for African Americans, just to keep Sweatt out. • The Supreme Court ruled this separate school failed to qualify as “separate but equal”, since it isolated its students.
NAACP Challenges ‘Separate But Equal’ • In 1953, the NAACP challenged a Kansas court ruling that African American students were denied admission to an all-white school. • The NAACP: • Segregated schools denied African American children the ‘equal protection’ of the law due them under the 14th Amendment. • Segregated schools were inherently inferior since it sent the message that African American children were not good enough to be educated with others.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 • The 1954 Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education was central to the success of the Civil Rights Movement. • After the end of the Civil War, Southern states passed laws requiring segregation of races in public places, including schools.
The Brown Court Decision • 1954, Thurgood Marshall argued the case for the NAACP: • Linda Brown, an African American girl, should be allowed to attend a white school closer to her home. • Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the unanimous decision for the Supreme Court. • The Brown v. Board of Education decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision and ended legal segregation in public schools! Linda Brown Thurgood Marshall became first African American on Supreme Court
March 19 • Learning Target: analyze the people, issues and outcomes of Civil Rights protests . • Success Criteria: use Primary Source documents to connect Civil Rights issues with the actions of proponents and opponents. • Activity: • Warm-Up • Protest discussion • Primary Source reading and questions
Non-Violent Protest & Civil Disobedience • Sit-ins, Marches, Boycotts, Wade-ins, Read-ins, and other tactics were used in the movement • Civil Disobedience • Refusal to comply with certain laws as a peaceful form of protest • SNCC • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was formed by young activists
The Little Rock Nine • Southern states delayed putting the ‘Brown’ decision into action. • Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Little Rock’s ‘Central High’ to prevent 9 African American students from enrolling. • Pres. Eisenhower ordered federal troops to Little Rock to ensure the Little Rock Nine could safely attend school. • Gov. Faubus closed the school until the courts forced its reopening.
George Wallace • Governor George Wallace said “segregation now, segregation forever” • Did not want to allow two black students into the University of Alabama • Kennedy called in the Alabama National Guard to enforce the integration and Wallace backed down.
Rosa Parks • Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. • When told by the driver that he was going to call the police, she calmly replied, “You may go on and do so.” • She was arrested for refusing to give up her seat • Catalyst for the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-56 • 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama bus to a white passenger. • Alabama’s ‘Jim Crow’ laws made this illegal and she was arrested. • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led a boycott of the bus line that lasted for 13 months. • The non-violent boycott worked and a court ruled that the bus line had violated the ‘equal protection’ clause of the 14th Amendment.
Civil Rights Act, 1957 • 1957, Pres. Eisenhower passed the Civil Rights Act to increase African American voting in the South. • Various ‘Jim Crow’ laws had limited the ability of blacks to vote without paying a poll tax or passing a literacy test. • The Act created a Civil Rights Commission giving federal courts the power to register African American voters. • Registration procedures were so complex that the act proved to be ineffective, but it helped set the pattern for later civil rights legislation.
Freedom Rides • 1961, interracial groups rode buses in Freedom Rides in the South to stop segregation. • CORE – Congress of Racial Equality tested segregation in transportation by staging a ride through the “deep south” • Protesters sat in the front of the bus and used “white” restrooms. • The two buses were firebombed and attacked by protesters • Kennedy sent in police to protect the riders
1960: Woolsworth Sit In • 1960, four African American college students, the Greensboro Four, held a sit-in at a “Whites-Only” lunch counter in North Carolina. • They were refused service and stayed until closing time. • Over the next few days, protesters filled 63 of the 66 seats at the lunch counter. • The students were dedicated and well-behaved and ended each sit-in with a prayer. • Over time, protesters in about 50 southern cities began to use the sit-in tactic. • As a result of these non-violent protests lunch counters were desegregated and the federal government was forced to help. • Marked a shift in the civil rights movement • Showed young African Americans’ growing impatience with the slow pace of change
Southerners Resist Integration • Southern Democrats in Congress banded together • Use their powers to stop passage of Civil Rights laws. • 1963: • Alabama Gov. George Wallace stood in the doorway of University of Alabama to prevent blacks from enrolling. • 1964: • Lester Maddox, a white restaurant owner wielded an axe at African Americans wanting to enter his whites-only restaurant, Maddox was later elected the governor of Georgia.
The Struggle for Voting Rights • 1964: 24th Amendment • eliminated poll taxes in federal elections. (Can’t charge to vote) • 1965: Selma Marches • SCLC organized a campaign in Selma to help enact voting legislation • MLK led marches in Selma, Alabama to demand voting rights for African Americans • organized 1,000 black and white college students to register African Americans to vote in Mississippi. • Before the volunteers could show up, 3 were murdered. • Protesters were attacked on “Bloody Sunday” by state troopers and other authorities
Voting Rights Act • LBJ responded to concerns over voting: • The Voting Rights Act of 1965: • LBJ signed bill into law that led to an increase in number of black voters. • Aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment • Eliminatedthe discriminatory literacy test • Used to keep African Americans from voting
Affirmative Action, 1965 • Affirmative Action: • Programs to increase number of minorities in colleges and businesses • Some said this was a form of reverse discrimination. • 1965: • LBJ signs Executive Order requiring employers to take positive steps to increase minority employees (later women were added). • In “Regents of U. of California v. Bakke”, the Supreme Court upheld affirmative action, but not use of racial quotas • quotas set for each race represented in a company/school.
March 20 • Learning Target: discuss the beginning of the modern Women’s rights movement. • Success Criteria: make connections between early feminist movements and those of the 1960s and 1970s, understanding the similarities and differences between the two eras. • Activity: • Warm-Up • Women’s Rights discussion • Primary Source reading and questions
Women‘s Liberation Movement • During the 1950s and 1960s women held traditional roles as wives and mothers. • Movies, TV, and magazines reinforced this stereotype. • Women who did not conform were considered outcasts. • Although women could vote, they still had not achieved full equality in the workplace or in the home. • Women’s Liberation Movement aimed at greater freedoms.
Women‘s Liberation Movement • There was a dissatisfaction among women with their roles • Wanted to express themselves with careers. • Civil Rights inspired women to adopt the same techniques • They engaged in sit-ins, demonstrations, and strikes. • Women objected to being ‘sex objects’ and the ability to take the ‘pill’ was liberating
Women‘s Liberation Movement • Feminism • the theory that women and men should have political, social, and economic equality. • WorkplaceDiscrimination • Difficult for women to advance at work, regardless of how well they performed • Pregnancy was seen as grounds for dismissal or demotion • Despite qualifications and higher education, women were overlooked and found few opportunities after gradation • Ex: Sandra Day O’Connor– 1st female supreme court member
Women‘s Liberation Movement • Betty Friedan’s “The Feminine Mystique” • Inspired middle class women to feel they should be treated as equals to men • Should be able to compete for the same jobs with equal pay. • Freidan helped form NOW, the National Organization for Women • Helped expand a woman’s right to education, employment, and created a ‘new attitude’ • Ms. replaced Miss and Mrs. • Women lobbied for funds to research breast cancer • Supreme Court case: “Roe V. Wade” gave women right to an abortion if they chose.
Title IX • Title IX banned sex discrimination in educational facilities. • Promoted gender equality guaranteeing girls the same opportunities as boys. • Before Title IX, only 1 in 27 girls played a varsity high school sport, by 2001 this had risen to 1 in 2.5. • Before Title IX, more men attended college than women, today there are more women than men in colleges.
March 21 • Learning Target: explore the growing discontent among minority groups in the United States. • Success Criteria: use primary sources to compare/contrast minority civil rights movements with the overall social changes in America. • Activity: • Warm-Up • Minority Rights discussion • Primary Source reading and questions
Hispanic American Rights • High demand for cheap agricultural labor during and after World War II • More than 4 million Mexican Immigrants came in under the “Bracero” or farmhand program. • Get a 25 year temporary guest status • Immigrants legally came in from Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic • Like other groups, Latinos faced harsh discrimination and wanted a change
The Chicano Movement • Mexican Americans faced discrimination, racism, and exploitation in the1960s • A Chicano Movement emerged with its focus on rights for farm workers, and voting and political rights. • Hector P. Garcia: • WW II veteran • Surgeon • Became a Civil Rights leader • Noticed that Mexican Americans were often barred from restaurants, voting, hospitals, swimming pools, and had limited employment opportunities. • Founded American G.I. Forum
Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta • Cesar Chavez organized migrant farm workers in California. • Chavez supported farm worker rights and demanded increased wages and better working conditions. • Chavez led migrant workers in a non-violent boycott by refusing to pick grapes. • Dolores Huerta joined with Chavez to form the United Farm Workers (UFW) to gain increased rights. • Huerta later worked for women’s rights, immigration reform, and the environment.
The Chicano Mural Movement • Mexican Americans expressed themselves through their art. • Using Mexican artist Diego Rivera as a model, they began painting murals in barrios throughout the Southwest U.S.. • The Chicano Mural Movement became an important way to support identity and justice in Mexican American communities. • Murals provided a visual for those who often lacked representation.
Mexican-Americans and Supreme Court Decisions • Mendez V. Westminster School District (1947) – Under the 14th Amendment made it illegal to segregate Mexican American children in California schools. • Delgado V. Bastrop ISD (1948) –Texas followed California in making segregation illegal. • Hernandez V. Texas (1954) – ruled Mexican Americans had right to a jury that included MexicanAmericans on it.
Mexican-Americans and Supreme Court Decisions • White V. Regester (1973) – required voting districts to be established that gave minorities a chance to elect representatives from their ethnic groups to government. • Edgewood ISD V. Kirby (1984) – required changes to school finance to increase funding for poorer school districts.
The American Indian Movement - AIM • Native Americans have been exploited since the beginning of America. • The Civil Rights Act of 1964, prohibited discrimination against Native Americans • Many still felt they were being mistreated by the government. • Using the slogan of “Red Power”, the American Indian Movement was founded to gain respect for their heritage and their civil rights. • AIM temporarily occupied monuments at Wounded Knee, SD and Alcatraz.
March 22 • Learning Target: examine minority Civil Rights movements. • Success Criteria: use historical evidence to understand change and continuity of Minority Civil Rights efforts throughout the 20th-21st centuries. • Activity: • Warm-Up • Minority Movements Activity
March 25 • Learning Target: evaluate the role of Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X in the Civil Rights Movement. • Success Criteria: compare/contrast the actions of MLK and Malcolm X. • Activity: • Warm-Up • MLK and Malcolm X discussion • Graphic organizer with reading
Southern Christian Leadership Conference • King established himself as a civil rights leader • Joined fellow minister Ralph Abernathy in establishing SCLC. • SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Conference • The group advocated non-violent resistance to fight injustice
MLK’s ‘Letter from a Birmingham Jail • MLK was emerging as the leader of the Civil Rights Movement • Used non-violence to resist unjust laws. • King’s followed in Gandhi’s steps in practicing civil disobedience • ‘everyone has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws’. • When MLK led a march in Birmingham, Alabama he was arrested and jailed. • In a “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” MLK explained why blacks could no longer wait patiently for their rights.
The March on Washington, 1963 • 1963, to gain support for a Civil Rights bill that was before Congress MLK led a ‘March on Washington’. • It would be the largest demonstration of human rights in history. • It was here that King gave his famous ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. • King would later meet with JFK. • A few months later JFK was killed, but there was a new willingness in Congress to pass legislation for Civil Rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 • 1963, JFK is assassinated and LBJ becomes the president. • As President, LBJ pushed through new legislation on civil rights. • 1964, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is signed into law by LBJ. • The law would • prohibit discrimination based on race, color, religion, or ethnic background in hotels, restaurants, and all places of employment doing business with the federal government.
Increasing African American Militancy • The demand for change was very strong among young African Americans. • The Civil Rights Movement had ended public segregation in schools and discrimination in voting, but it had not provided for equal opportunities. • Many young African Americans did not believe that MLK’s non-violent methods were powerful enough. • The new militants believed in Black Power to obtain equal rights and empower their communities.
The Black Power Movement • In the 1960s many African Americans began to search for the ‘roots’ of their culture. • “Black is Beautiful” became the slogan as they grew Afro hair styles and wore fashions based on African cultures. • New groups emerged to provide leadership of traditional non-violent methods (MLK) • Other, more radical and violent groups emerged as well (Malcolm X, Black Panthers).
Black Power Movement • Many young African Americans wanted to move away from the principal of non-violence • Black Panthers • young militants that armed themselves against abuse and patrolled urban neighborhoods to protect African-American people • Entered the state capital carrying shotguns to protest their right to bear arms • The group had several violent confrontations with police, each side accusing the other of violence
Malcolm X • African American radical • Converted the Nation of Islam • He preached self-reliance and self-protection • Called for black pride and black nationalism • His tactics were the opposite of King’s and very similar to those of the Black Panthers • Malcolm X was shot and killed
Different Approaches • Black Muslims said Islam should be the religion of all African Americans. Non-Violent Organizations • MLK preached non-violence. • NAACP Civil Rights organization. • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Violent Organizations • Malcolm X ‘by any means necessary’ • Black Panthers demanded right to determine their own destiny.
The Ghettos Erupt, 1968 • A lack of jobs, urban poverty, and racism were the main causes behind the riots. • In northern cities African Americas faced segregation in housing • Whites often refused to sell a home to them. • Blacks were forced to live in inner city slums called ghettos. • 1968, MLK is assassinated by a white supremacist in Memphis. • Anger and grief sparked riots across the nation that took dozens of lives.
March 26 • Learning Target: analyze the effects of MLK and Malcolm X’s ideologies on the Civil Rights Movement . • Success Criteria: use Primary Source documents compare/contrast the opposing ideologies and the effects of each on the Civil Rights Movement. • Activity: • Warm-Up • MLK and Malcolm X comparison with reading
March 27 • Learning Target: evaluate the Issues and outcomes of the Civil Rights movement 1950s-1970s. • Success Criteria: use primary sources to discuss and reflect on the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s-1970s. • Activity: • Reform DBQ Activity