Chicago’s Global Status: Is Chicago a “global city”? GaWC: rates cities’ “global” status [Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network: Loughborough University English]
Proposed criterion for defining a global or “world-class” city: • 1st name basis: “Paris,” not “Winnemucca, Nevada” or “Cleveland, Tennessee” 2. involvement in international affairs: NATO: Brussels, UN: New York, etc.
Proposed criterion for defining a global or “world-class” city: 3. population: 1+ million/ center of big metro area. 4. big international airport with hubs
Proposed criterion for defining a global or “world-class” city: 5. advanced transportation system: mass transit, expressways, multiple modes 6. international/immigrant communities: Chinatown, Little Italy, diplomats, etc.
Proposed criterion for defining a global or “world-class” city: 7. International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters and stock that have influence over the world economy. 8. Advanced communications infrastructure: fiberoptics, Wi-Fi networks, cell phone services, high-speed communications.
Proposed criterion for defining a global or “world-class” city: 9. World-renowned cultural institutions 10: A lively cultural scene 11: Several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach
Defining and ranking global cities: GaWC ranking system: • ranked cities alpha, beta, gamma • point-system based on "advanced producer services," such as accounting, advertising, banking/finance and law. So where does Chicago stand?
Alpha Cities: • 12 points: London, New York City, Paris, Tokyo
Alpha Cities: • 10 points: Chicago, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan, Singapore
Beta Cities: • 9 points: San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zurich • 8 points: Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, São Paulo • 7 points: Moscow, Seoul
Gamma Cities: • 6 points: Amsterdam; Boston; Caracas; Dallas; Dusseldorf; Geneva; Houston; Jakarta; Johannesburg; Melbourne; Osaka; Prague; Santiago; Taipei; Washington, D.C.; Montréal • 5 points: Bangkok, Beijing, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw
Gamma Cities: • 4 points: Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Budapest, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai