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The Civil War (1861-1865)

The Civil War (1861-1865)

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The Civil War (1861-1865)

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  1. The Civil War (1861-1865)

  2. Battle of Bull Run / Manassas • The first major battle of the Civil War was fought on July 21, 1861 • Union – Irvin McDowall • Confederate – P.G.T. Beauregard • Union forces were initially successful until Confederate reinforcements arrived under the command of Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • Union troops retreated in chaos

  3. Battle of Bull Run / Manassas • Casualties at Bull Run totaled 4,878 men • Union – 460 killed • Confederate – 387 killed • Union forces & civilians feared that an attack on Washington, DC was imminent • Both sides realized that the war was going to be longer & deadlier than anticipated

  4. Battle of Bun Run / Manassas • As a result of his loss at Bull Run, Lincoln replaced McDowell with George McClellan who was named general-in-chief of all the Union armies • Able to transform the troops into a disciplined army • Remained cautious as fighting continued in the East

  5. Battle of Shiloh • Took place on April 6-7, 1862 • Union forces were led by Ulysses S. Grant who planned an attack on a railroad junction near the Mississippi / Tennessee border • Confederate forces then staged a surprise attack on Grant’s army

  6. Battle of Shiloh • Confederate forces were successful until Union reinforcements arrived the next day • The battle was the bloodiest in American history up to that time • Casualties totaled 23,4746 • Union – 1,754 killed • Confederate – 1,728 killed

  7. Battle of Antietam / Sharpsburg • Took place on September 17, 1862 • Confederate forces were led by Robert E. Lee who invaded Maryland in hopes of gaining needed supplies & European recognition of the Confederacy • It was the first major battle to take place on Northern soil

  8. Battle of Antietam / Sharpsburg • Tactically, the battle was a draw • Strategically, it was a Union victory as it stopped Lee’s invasion • The battle was the bloodiest single day of fighting in the war • Casualties totaled 24,000 • Union – 2,108 killed • Confederate – 1,546 killed

  9. Battle of Antietam / Sharpsburg • Antietam was also an important diplomatic victory • Lincoln reconsidered his views concerning the war & slavery • As the war continued & the death tolls rose, Lincoln drafted a proclamation to free the slaves

  10. Emancipation Proclamation • Five days after the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation • Freed the slaves residing in states in rebellion against the Union • Allowed Lincoln to maintain the support of the border states while pushing them closer to emancipation • Transformed the Union war aims • Further divided the Northern Democrats • Copperhead Democrats – Wanted an immediate end to the war & saw Lincoln as a tyrant • War Democrats – Demanded an aggressive policy towards the Confederacy & supported Lincoln