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Athletic Injuries ATC 222 Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat Chapter 22 PowerPoint Presentation
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Athletic Injuries ATC 222 Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat Chapter 22

Athletic Injuries ATC 222 Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat Chapter 22

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Athletic Injuries ATC 222 Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat Chapter 22

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  1. Athletic Injuries ATC 222Head, Face, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and ThroatChapter 22

  2. Nervous System • Central Nervous System • brain • spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System

  3. Brain Anatomy • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Brain Stem Meninges • Dura Mater • Arachnoid Mater • Pia Mater

  4. Head Injuries • Incidence of serious injury has decreased • neck injuries? • protective gear • Appr. 250,000 concussions/year • Focal vs. Diffuse Injuries

  5. Concussion • Definition • clinical syndrome characterized by immediate and transient impairment of normal neurological function • Grades • Return to Play Criteria • Post-concussion Syndrome • Second Impact Syndrome

  6. Evaluation Process • Primary Assessment? • ABC’s • Secondary Assessment • Mental Status • Cranial Nerve Exam • Motor System Exam • Proprioception, balance, and coordination

  7. Cranial Nerve Exam • Test for: • Vision • Tracking • Visual Fields • Pupil Reflex • Hearing • Swallowing • Shoulder Shrug • Facial Sensation • Facial Expression • Tongue Protrusion • Mastication

  8. Other Signs and Symptoms • headache • nausea, vomiting • seizures • unequal pupils • tinnitus • unusual drowsiness

  9. Treatment • Should be mostly symptomatic in nature • Recheck athlete on regular basis • Refer if in doubt or in more severe cases • Monitor throughout the night • No alcohol, aspirin, ibuprofen • No activity until asymptomatic • Refer if current s/s worsen or if new s/s appear over time

  10. Facial Injuries • Mandible Fracture • deformity • malocclusion • malalignment • bleeding around teeth/gums • lower lip anesthesia • pain with biting • Treatment

  11. Facial Injuries • Mandible Dislocation/Subluxation • commonly from lateral force • malalignment • malocclusion • open, locked jaw

  12. Dental Injuries • Types • fracture • dislocation/subluxation • Treatment • realign subluxation • replace/preserve dislocation or fracture • 30 minute survival rate

  13. Nasal Injuries • Fracture or Cartilage Separation • S/S • deformity • profuse bleeding • immediate swelling • crepitus • treatment • control hemorrhaging • referral • most return to activity in 3-4 days

  14. Nasal Injuries • Epistaxis (nosebleed) • sit upright • ice (nose and ipsilateral carotid) • direct pressure on nostril • cotton/gauze plug • refrain from nose blowing for 2 hours

  15. Ear Injuries • Hematoma Auris (cauliflower ear) • causes • S/S • swelling • redness, warmth • pain • treatment • ice • protection • aspirate

  16. Eye Injuries • Causes and Prevention • S/S or Serious Eye Injury • prolonged blurred vision • loss of part/all of visual field (detached retina?) • sharp, stabbing, throbbing pain • double vision • embedded object • blood in anterior chamber

  17. Treatment of Serious Eye Injury • immediate referral • cover both eyes with embedded object • ice only to surrounding tissue • no pressure applied to eyes

  18. Orbital Hematoma • “Black Eye” • Bleeding in orbit area and poss. Sclera • Rule out serious eye injury

  19. Foreign Body in Eye • Embedded? • Removal • Close eye • eye rinse • removal with gauze pad