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Introduction to GIS

Introduction to GIS

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Introduction to GIS

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  1. Introduction to GIS Basic overview: What is GIS, what types of data, what applications?

  2. TopicsGIS part of course • Basic knowledge geography, cartography • GIS data and representation • GIS data sources and acquisition • GIS datastructures • GIS analysis • GIS visualization (cartography) algorithms

  3. This lecture • What is a GIS? • Examples of applications of GIS • Basic functionalityof GIS • What is typical about GIS? • What software andcompanies? • Roleofcomputer science

  4. A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world (Burrough, 1986) A system for capturing, storing checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth (Dept. of Environment, 1987) An information technology which stores, analyses, and displays both spatial and non-spatial data (Parker, 1988) What is GIS? Definitions

  5. Definitions, continued • A database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer queries about spatial entities in the database (Smith et al., 1987) • A decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment (Cowen, 1988)

  6. Set of tools System Database system Decision support system Also: A technology Spatial data is essential At the leastan aid for input, storage, manipulation, analysisand visualizationof data DifferencesSimilarities

  7. Most common use of GIS • Management of geographic data • land use • land ownership • date of origin of features (e.g. buildings) • ...with a possibility of querying

  8. Important example use • Site planning: find locations that satisfy a combination of properties (e.g. for VINEX locations): • not built up • not forest • near a train station • at least 8 km2 • ...

  9. What is typical about GIS? • Applicationsarespatial • Problemsare not well-defined: multiple criteria must be met simultaneously, concepts often not well-defined (e.g. Groene Hart, surroundings of Arnhem) • Data is unreliable, expensive to get,sometimesoutdated, sometimes only partially relevant, difficult to integrate, ...

  10. Firstsof data storage, I • Geometricandattributedata • Geometry: severalmap layers • Attribute: as in normal databases • municipality Zierikzee • population 45.000 • …..

  11. Firstsof data storage, II • Geometry: vector andraster representation (4.237 Lon, 52.674 Lat) (4.234 Lon, 52.671 Lat)

  12. Outputofa GIS • Maps- theme choice- stacking orderchoice- colors, projection, etc. • Tables, states • Query results: “There is x square meter with therequested properties” • Analysis results (e.g., fordecision support)

  13. Another example use and output

  14. More examples • Pollution • Natural disasters • Management (road, water,...) • Planning outcome of air pollution analysis earthquakes and break lines

  15. GIS in the Netherlands: data • Cadastral offices (GBKN) • Topographic Service (TOP10vector, raster) • Road and WaterManagement (NWB) • Elevation (AHN) • Subsurface (TNO) • Pollution data,health data (TNO, RIVM) • Census bureau:CBS (statistical data) • Companies (road networks)

  16. Actueel Hoogtebestand • Data comes with metadata • Average error 5 cm • Standard deviation 15 cm • Filtering of houses, trees, cars, ... Price: 200.000,- for the original data points; 100.000,- for the 5m grid

  17. Cadastre/Topographic Service TOP10vector TOP10roads Subscription per 1 km2: 13,32 For all of NL: 401.000,- 288.000,-

  18. Cadastre/Topographic Service TOP10raster without text TOP10raster with text TOP50raster TOP250raster

  19. GIS in the Netherlands: users • RIVM • Cadastre • TNO (defense, security and safety; built environment and geosciences) • Alterra (agricultural research) • Rijkswaterstaat (ministery of VROM) • Companies • Universities (research):physical andhuman geography, cartography, archeology, biology, meteorology, geophysics, geology, ….

  20. Socio-economic/ government Health Local government Transport planning Service planning Urban management Utilities Network management Service provision Telecommunications Emergency repairs Commerce & business Market share analysis Insurance Fleet management Direct marketing Target marketing Retail site location Environment Pollution monitoring Natural hazard assessment Resource management Environmental impact assessment Application areas: general

  21. GIS in the Netherlands: research • ITC: International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (Enschede) • Universities (e.g., Delft, Utrecht, Wageningen)

  22. GIS: types of companies • GIS, generalsoftware (ESRI, Intergraph, MapInfo, Oracle, Tensing) • Routeplanners (TomTom, Garmin, Magellan) • Internet (geographic search engines/geographic IR, Google Maps/Earth, MapQuest, ...) • Data services, training, consultancy, applications

  23. Main GIS company: ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) • Since 1969 (!) • 70th largest softwarecompany (in 2008)

  24. Software of ESRI • ArcGis: GIS • ArcView: desktop mapping • ArcExplorer: GIS data viewer andquery tool via map • MapObjects: libraryto add GIS functionalityto Windows applications • Spatial Database Engine: client/server software to adjoin GIS to existing DBMS (Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL server, …) • ArcLogistics, ArcCAD (GIS functionality in AutoCAD), ArcFM (facilities management), NetEngine (network analysis), Maplex (label placement)

  25. Software of ESRI for Internet • ArcIMS (Internet Mapping Solutions): GIS • ArcView IMS (Internet Map Server): desktop mapping on the Internet • MapObjects IMS: libraryto add GIS functionalityto Windows applications

  26. Software with GIS features • Desktop mapping (Freehand, Map Maker, PolyMap) • Car Navigation Systems (TomTom, Garmin, Magellan) • Landuse Information Systems • Software for (geo)statistics, interpolation (SYSTAT)

  27. Computer scienceissuesof GIS • Databases • (Geometric) algorithms • Graphics, scientific visualization • Knowledge technology, decision support systems • Combinatorial optimization • Interface design