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Social Control

Social Control

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Social Control

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  1. Social Control Chapter 3, Section 2

  2. Internalization of Norms • There are two main ways in which norms are enforced– internalization and sanctions. • An individual’s following of a norm without actively thinking is internalization. • Process by which a norm becomes part of an individual’s daily conditioned behavior. • Sanctions= rewards or punishments used to enforce the conformity to norms.

  3. Types of Sanctions • Positive sanctions= an action that rewards a particular kind of behavior. • Examples: parents praising children; cheering when your team hits the game-winning shot, etc. • Negative sanctions= punishment, or the threat of punishment used to ensure conformity. • The more important the norm, the more serious the negative sanction. • Examples: Fear of being towed; frowns; threat of imprisonment.

  4. Types of Sanctions • Formal sanctions= reward or punishment given by a formal organization or agency, such as a school, business or gov. • Can be negative or positive. • Informal sanctions= spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval. • Compliments, smiles, laughing, etc.

  5. Enforcing Norms • Social control occurs when norms are enforced either internally or externally. • Levels of social control: • Self-control • Authority figures w/use of sanctions • Social order becomes jeopardized when norms are not followed. • Societies cannot survive without a system of social control.

  6. Social Change Chapter 3, Section 3

  7. What is it? • All cultures encounter change at some point in time or another. • How quickly a culture changes depends on how many traits it has. • Change allows for more change. • Functionalists view society as a set of interrelated parts. When a change occurs in one area of society, it leads to changes elsewhere.

  8. Sources of Change- Values and Beliefs • Ideology= system of beliefs or ideas that justify the social, moral, religious, political or economic interests of a society. • The push for acceptance of an ideology leads to social movements. • Long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change. • Involve large numbers of people. • Examples: civil rights, environmental, women’s rights.

  9. Sources of Change- Technology and Population • Technology facilitates change in two ways– discovery and invention. • Discovery new uses for existing elements. • Invention existing knowledge is used to create something that did not previously exist. • As population increases/decreases, the economy and culture of a society adjusts.

  10. Sources of Change- Diffusion • Diffusion= spreading cultural traits from one society to another. • More contact= more traits borrowed. • Certain cultural traits (especially technology) spread more rapidly than others. • The adaptation of borrowed cultural traits into one’s own culture is known as reformulation.

  11. Resistance to Change • There is always some form of opposition to social change. • Social changes are often the result of societal compromises. • Ethnocentrism belief that one’s own culture is superior. • Cultural lag= occurs when certain cultural traits change quicker than others. • Vested interests if an individual is satisfied with the way things are, they would be against change.