The Post-Classical World: Byzantium, Medieval Europe, Pre-Columbian Americas Mr. Bartula AP World History
Conditions At The End Of The Classical Period: ca 500-800 CE Civilizations became vastly larger and geographically redistributed due to three elements: The Growth of Islam The Growth of China The Growth of Europe
Conditions At The End Of The Classical Period: ca 500-800 CE • Immigration by Germanic peoples flooded Western Europe • Epidemic disease outbreaks decimated populations in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia • Population growth caused Viking migrations to Iceland and Greenland, Asian invasions of China, and Chinese migrations to southern China.
Conditions At The End Of The Classical Period: ca 500-800 CE • Iron plows and other tools caused an increase in agricultural production in Africa, Asia, and Europe. • Development of new trade networks led to European revival and a new medieval culture. • China’s internal development continued to lead the world
The Post-Classical World: Top to Bottom • China: magnificent civilization spreading its influence throughout East Asia • India: great religious center, important commercial and trading region 3. Dar al’Islam: vigorous trading and cultural center
The Post-Classical World: Top to Bottom • American civilizations: separate, but making important cultural advances • Sub-Saharan Africa: new societies with Asian trading connections 6. Europe: backwards, the least developed area
Social Conversion The syncretic process by which people adopt or adapt foreign cultural traditions • Conversion through voluntary association 2. Conversion by pressure 3. Conversion by assimilation
Byzantine Government • Efficient bureaucracy • “byzantine” politics: intrigue, espionage, etc. • Well-trained and organized armies • Emperors held all political power • Emperors also held religious authority (caesaropapism)
Byzantine Culture • Highly religious • Center of trade routes • Wealth and luxury • Volatile and violent population • Preserved much classical culture
The Eastern Orthodox Church • Formal separation from Roman Catholicism in 1054 • Led by Patriarchs (bishops of major cities) • No priestly celibacy • No instrumental music • icons
Emperor Justinian I 527-565 • The greatest Byzantine Emperor • Reconquered much of the western Roman Empire • Established the Corpus Juris Civilis • Built Hagia Sophia
Eastern Orthodoxy • Great Schism of 1054 • Led by Patriarchs and the Byzantine Emperors • Became dominant Christianity in Eastern Europe and Russia
The Fourth Crusade, 1204 • The Crusading army attacked Constantinople and looted the city. • Constantinople was under Western European control for approximately 50 years • The city and the Byzantine Empire never fully recovered.
The Byzantines and Islam • The Muslims were the most persistent enemies of the Byzantines • In 1071 the Battle of Manzikert allowed the Seljuk Turks to gain control over much of the Middle East • Over the next four hundred years the Muslims gradually conquered the rest of the Byzantine Empire • In 1453 Constantinople was captured and renamed Istanbul.
Western Europe’s Medieval Era • Ca 476 to 1453 • “Dark Ages” ca 500-800 • “Medieval Warm Period” ca 800-1300 • Collapse of the Roman Empire • Invasions of the “Barbarians” • Influence of Roman Catholic Christianity
The Franks • Gaul • 481: King Clovis converted to Roman Catholic Christianity, anointed by the Pope • Merovingian Dynasty established • Later Merovingian Kings called “Do-Nothings” • Real power in hands of the Mayors of the Palace.
Charles Martel and Pepin the Short • Charles Martel: greatest Mayor of the Palace • 732, defeated Muslims at the Battle of Tours • His son Pepin the Short overthrew the Merovingians and became King.
Charlemagne 768-814 • Greatest King of the Franks • Ruled all of France and Germany • Capital Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) • Encouraged education • Reestablished law and order • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor Dec 25, 800
Treaty of Verdun 843 • Charlemagne’s grandsons divided his empire • West Frankland: France • East Frankland: Germany • The Middle Kingdom: contested region. • More conflict led to breakdown of law and order, and the rise of . . .
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.