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Biology 102 Laboratory 1 Blood and Blood Typing

Biology 102 Laboratory 1 Blood and Blood Typing

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Biology 102 Laboratory 1 Blood and Blood Typing

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  1. Biology 102 Laboratory 1 Blood and Blood Typing

  2. Lab Safety and Laboratory Overview • Lab Safety • Inside front cover of your Marieb/Mitchell Laboratory Manual • IT Policies • Safety Equipment for lab • Lab Overview • Lab slides/handouts - I will provide copies • Prep for lab • Grading policy for lab • Making up missed labs Please be sure to put your name in the proper location on the laboratory seating chart and sign the IT policies sheet before you leave today.

  3. Objectives for Lab 1 • Be able to read and interpret a blood typing agglutination reaction and determine blood type from what you see • Understand what determines blood type and under what circumstances a transfusion reaction may occur, i.e., what serum antibodies must be present for a reaction to take place • Be able to distinguish the formed elements of blood under the microscope or from a photomicrograph, and know the approximate percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes

  4. Neutrophils • light blue granules in acid-base stain • lobed nucleus • other names • segs • polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) • bands (young neutrophils) • first to arrive at infections • phagocytic • 54% - 62% of leukocytes • elevated in bacterial infections

  5. Basophils • deep blue granules from basic stain • release histamine • release heparin • less than 1% of leukocytes

  6. Eosinophils • deep red granules in acid stain • bilobed nucleus • moderate allergic reactions • defend against parasitic worm infestations • 1% - 3% of leukocytes • elevated in worm infestations and allergic reactions

  7. Monocytes • largest blood cell • kidney-shaped or oval nuclei • leave bloodstream to become macrophages • 3% - 9% of leukocytes • elevated in typhoid fever, malaria, tuberculosis

  8. Lymphocytes • about the size of RBC • large spherical nuclei • thin rims of cytoplasm • T cells • B cells • important in immunity • produce antibodies • 25% - 33% of leukocytes • decreased T Cells in AIDS

  9. Antigens and Antibodies • The major function of the immune system is to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘non-self’ • Antigens are glycoproteins that can potentially trigger an immune response (agglutinogens) • An antibody is a protein that binds specifically to a particular antigen (agglutinins)

  10. ABO Blood Group

  11. Agglutination *

  12. Blood Agglutination Anti-D = Rh factor Agglutination(positive rexn) Homogeneous “lawn” of RBCs (negative rexn) Figure From: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001

  13. Preferred and Permissible Blood Types for Transfusion NOTE: Type AB is a universal recipientType O is a universal donor

  14. Rh Blood Group Factor Several antigens, most important is antigen D If any Rh antigens present, blood is Rh+ Anti-Rh antibodies develop after exposure of an Rh- individual to Rh+ blood.

  15. Determining if a transfusion reaction will occur • When transfusing ‘packed red cells’, only RBCs will be transfused from donor to recipient • Must consider ONLY if the antibodies present in the recipient’s plasma will react with the donor’s RBCs. Example: Transfusing CELLS from a type B donor to the PLASMA of a type A recipient. Cells Plasma Cells Plasma

  16. Review AB = universal recipient, O = universal donor

  17. Things you should do in lab today • Examine the blood slide under the microscope • Blood slide – be able to recognize and distinguish among the different types of cells as well as platelets • Refer to your • Marieb’s Lab Manual for pictures/guidance (Ex. 29) • See Lab Guide (handout) checklist of cells for which you are responsible for Laboratory Exercise #1 • Test a simulated blood sample (work with a partner) • Use the Ward’s kits to test a sample of simulated blood; see the instructions in your Lab Guide • Determine the blood type • Fill out Lab Report sheet and hand in today • Please try to log on to the computer at your station

  18. Next Lab… • Suggest that you review the following exercises in preparation for examining models and learning blood vessels • See Blood/Cardiovascular links on Web site • Heart Anatomy (Human models and Steer hearts) • See Exercise 30 in Marieb’s Lab Manual • Don’t forget your dissecting kits, safety glasses, and gloves! • Be sure to review what you did today and complete Review Sheet for Exercise 29 in your lab manual (you do not have to hand this in).