Psychological Needs • Not necessary for survival like biological needs. • Make life worth living. • People engage in all kinds of activities unrelated to basic needs.
Why do we work? • Support ourselves and our families. • Pay bills. • Most people enjoy work. • Sense of purpose. • Social aspect of being with other people.
Enjoy leisure activities. • Retirement activities. • Sun City, Florida. • Sports, crafts, performance, social outreach. • Everyone has role in community. • Community run by volunteers.
Motivating people to get involved. • Hope people will do what is best. • Help out when needed. • Avoid well-known risks. • Sometimes we have to mold behavior.
Safer to wear seatbelts. • Well-known that seatbelts save lives. • Usage varies greatly. • 51% in Mass before law. Now 76%. • 91% in Calif • 78% in CT • Requirement and enforcement make a difference
Eventually internalized • Starts extrinsic. • Not wearing seatbelt might lead to punishment. • Wearing reinforced by others and by vehicle. • Put them on as a matter of habit. • Becomes intrinsic.
Punishment and reinforcement. • “Click it or ticket” • Threat of punishment. • Random checks. • Car comes with warning buzzers. • Stop if you buckle up. • Reinforces wearing.
Developing skills • String bass in corner • Like to get back to playing it • Boring to play bass part • Need to join group • Rewards of working together • Concert coming up • Positives outweigh negatives • Lugging bass across campus
Environment controls behavior • Extrinsic motivation. • External rewards and punishments. • Praise increase likelihood I’ll participate. • Criticism decrease the likelihood. • Principles of operant conditioning at work.
Reinforcement Leads to an increase in behavior. Punishment Leads to a decrease in behavior. Effects on behavior
Types of reinforcement • Positive reinforcement: behavior leads to reward. Negative reinforcement: behavior removes pain or anxiety • Ex: take pill for headache
Types of punishment • Behavior leads to unpleasant outcome or takes away something pleasant. • Goal of punishment is a decrease in unwanted behavior.
Problems with punishment • Negative feelings towards person giving punishment. • Physical or psychological pain. • Escalate in severity. • Situational: substitute teacher syndrome. • Less likely to internalize.
External versus internal • Better to have intrinsic motivation. • Behave not because you fear punishment or expect reward (external) • But because you want to behave in a certain way. • Motivation from within (intrinsic).
Ryan and Deci • American Psychologist, 1/2000 • Self-Determination Theory • Facilitation of intrinsic motivation • Described in Reeve Chapters 5 & 6. • Chart on Reeve p 154.
Components of Intrinsic Motivation • Autonomy: self-governing • Competence: well-qualified, capable a.k.a self-efficacy • Relatedness: support and affirmation from peers.
Extrinsic Motivation • Needed when no intrinsic reasons • Example: pay taxes • Develop intrinsic over time • Example: seat belt use. • At first extrinsic: avoid tickets, alarms, nagging children • Becomes internalized
Regulatory styles • Ryan and Deci p. 72 (Reeve p. 154) • Amotivation • Non-regulation • Don’t care about rewards and punishments. • Lack of control. • “They pretend to pay us and we pretend to work.”
Continuum of Regulation • External ------------------- Internal • External regulation • Compliance • External rewards and punishments.
Internal regulation • Synthesis with self-congruence. • Agreement conforms to beliefs • Goal is to get people to accept goals as their own. • Move from compliance to self-regulation. • Compliance with medication.
Facilitating Internalization • Relatedness • Desire to belong and feel connected. • Group projects, share tasks • Self-efficacy • Improves chances of success • Avoid early failures
Psychological needs • Self-determination theory related to psychological needs. • Extrinsic motivation not strongly related to well-being • Wealth, fame and image. • Well-being not enhanced by achievement of extrinsic goals.
Ryan and Deci, p 75 • “Exposure to commercial media prompt a focus on materialism which provides fleeting satisfactions.” • May seek extrinsic rewards to compensate for deficits in fulfilling basic psychological needs. • Extrinsic rewards are insufficient and poor compensation.
Self actualization • Promote autonomy and competence. • Encourage natural potential for growth. • Facilitating human achievement and well-being • Provide social environment to support growth. “Hot house” • Home, school, job.