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Chapter 4: Adolescence

Chapter 4: Adolescence

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Chapter 4: Adolescence

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  1. Chapter 4: Adolescence Section 2: Personal Development

  2. A. Introduction • 1. Sense of identity and self-esteem important • 2. Involves changes in reasoning • 3. Changes in moral thinking • 4. Adjustments in personality • 5. Adjustments in sexual behavior

  3. B. Cognitive Development 1. Piaget’s formal operations thinking begins • a. Can comprehend hypotheticals What is life like on another planet? • b. Can understand abstract principles Analogies Metaphors • c. Overpowering emotional feeling dealt with through rationalization-what is it?

  4. 2. Dr. David Elkind--Problems as a result of immaturity and abstract thought processes: • a. Finding fault with authority figures • b. Argumentativeness • c. Indecisiveness • d. Apparent hypocrisy • e. Self-consciousness • f. Invulnerability

  5. C. Moral Development • Adolescents go through important moral changes • Kohlberg—Stages 4-5—maybe even 6 • Moral laws more important than written laws • Little changes during high school—more during college

  6. D. Identity—Erickson’s Identity Crisis • 1. Unique to adolescence • 2. Period of inner conflict and intense worry about who you are • 3.Factors contributing to onset • a. Physiological changes • b. Cognitive development • c. Sexual awakening

  7. 4. Identity formation vs. identity confusion • Adolescents need to organize their needs, abilities, talents, interests, background, culture, peer demands • Identity formed when issues can be resolved – occupation, values, sexual identity • Role confusion is normal

  8. E. James Marcia’s View • 1. 4 attempts to achieve a sense of identity • A. identity moratorium • Considering the issues; have not made commitment on any important decisions • B. identity foreclosure • Made a firm commitment to decisions made by others • C. identity confused or diffused • No decisions, no identity • D. identity achievement • Considered many identities, have freely committed

  9. Note: • Not all psychologists agree • Erikson studied troubled teens

  10. F. Other Theories • A. Peterson—crisis not normal; due to external circumstances • B. Bandura– social learning view—human development one continuous process; interactions with others help to form identities • C. Mead—development is continuous; no crisis, no sudden change

  11. G. Conclusion • Erikson did not include a social factor • All theories must be included to explore personality development