UNDERGRADUATE KASA: LEARNINGAND ASSESSMENT VIAPRESENTATIONS AND PORTFOLIOS Christine Kosky, Ph.D. CCC – SLP Professional Associate Communication Disorders Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York American Speech-Language Hearing Association 2007 Annual Convention, Boston, MA
ASHA KASA (2005) STANDARDS • Demonstrate knowledge of: • 111- B: the basic human communication processes • 111- C: communication disorders, cognitive and social aspects of communication • 111 – F: Processes used in research and the integration of research principles into evidenced-based clinical practice. • 1V- B: Possess skill in oral and written or other forms of communication sufficient for entry into professional practice
LEARNING “ to gain knowledge or understanding of, or skill by study, instruction, or experience.” Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2003) 11 th edition.
REFLECTION • “Reflection is the process by which we think about what we learn” Yancey, (2001) • “We learn to reflect as we learn to talk: in the company of others” • “To reflect, as to learn, we set a problem for ourselves, we try to conceptualize that problem from diverse perspectives – the scientific and the spontaneous – for it is in seeing something from divergent perspectives that we see it fully.” • “Along the way we check and confirm, as we seek to reach goals that we have set for ourselves.” Yancey, (1998)
CRITICAL THINKING Arons, (2004)”critical thinking entails a series of 10 reasoning abilities of thought.” • Consciously raising the questions when studying some body of material or approaching a problem. “What do we know…….?” “How do we know……..?” “Why do we accept or believe …….?” “What is the evidence for ………….?” • Being clearly and explicitly aware of gaps in available information Recognizing when a conclusion is reached or a decision made in absence of complete information and being able to tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
CRITICAL THINKING 3. Discriminating between observation and inference, between established fact and subsequent conjecture. 4. Recognizing that words are symbols and not the ideas themselves. 5. Probing for assumptions (particularly the implicit, unarticulated assumptions) behind a line of reasoning. 6. Drawing inferences from data, observations, or other evidence and recognizing when firm inferences cannot be drawn.
CRITICAL THINKING 7. Performing hypothetico-deductive reasoning, that is, given a particular situation, applying relevant knowledge of principles and constraints and visualizing, in the abstract, the plausible outcomes that might result from various changes 8. Discrimination between inductive and deductive reasoning 9. Testing one’s own line of reasoning and conclusions for internal consistency and developing intellectual reliance 10. Developing self-consciousness concerning one’s own thinking and reasoning processes. Bain, (2004)
TAXONOMY OF SIGNIFICANT LEARNING OUTCOMES (Fink, 2003) • Foundation knowledge – specific to the course • Skill in application of knowledge • Skill in integration of knowledge • Skill in acknowledging human dimension • Skill in demonstrating a caring approach • Skill in self-directed learning
ADDITIONAL LEARNING OUTCOMES • LOCATION OF INFORMATION • AGENTS OF KNOWLEDGE • REVIEWING/REVISING • SOCIAL IN NATURE
STUDENT – FACULTY DIALOGUE • Student contribution is important • The learner has to know that he/she is important • Faculty recognizes that the learner is important • The learner has knowledge about how he/she learns • The student has an investment in the outcome of the learning activity
SIGNIFICANT LEARNING ACTIVITIES Presentations a) Case study research projects (Semester length) Courses: Phonetics (Articulatory) Speech and Language Acquisition Undergraduate Program in Speech – Language Pathology Department of Communication Studies, Iona College b) Research project (Semester length) Course: Communication Disorders - Organic Undergraduate Program in Communication Disorders Mercy College
RESEARCH • “The major objectives of scientific research are to describe variables, the hypothetical relations among them, the means of altering such relations through systematic forms of manipulation or control” • “The purpose of research is to discover new knowledge by asking questions that can be answered through valid and reliable research methods” • “ Non experimental research is comprised of several types of studies in which the investigator observes and describes an outcome as it happens or has happened sometime in the past.” • “True experiments are the strongest of the research designs because they include (1) random assignment of participants, (2) deliberate and active manipulation of independent variables, and (3) use of control groups as a basis for evaluating the influence of an independent variable Maxwell and Satake, (2006)
CASE STUDIES One approach in non-experimental research is the case study in which a single individual is studied and the findings reported Data-gathering techniques include: • Observation and recording of behavior • Interviews with the case and significant others • Results from clinical and laboratory tests • Previous educational and medical assessments • Progress reports Goal: Focus on issues that maybe relevant to understanding future cases of a similar kind
STUDENT CASE STUDY PROJECTS Iona College Courses: Speech and Language Acquisition Phonetics Parameters: • Type and level of class • Purpose of the case study • Learning outcomes • Criteria for assessment • Assessment – rubrics – research paper abstracts • Instructor review – speech/language samples and analysis • Peer review – in-class poster session – written comments • Self-reflection – a) immediately after the in-class poster session • b) three months later • Critical thinking – generating questions about the participant’s speech/language development
LEARNING OUTCOMES IN CASE STUDIES Learning OutcomesLearning Activity Foundation Knowledge Major developmental milestones Plot speech/language development Skill in self-directed learning Selects appropriate resources Choose 2 articles from peer- reviewed journals Skill in integration of knowledge Describes and contrasts the Develop a table that includes purposes, participants, methods these components and results
LEARNING OUTCOMES IN CASE STUDIES Learning OutcomesLearning Activity Demonstrates a caring approach Skills necessary for communication Relays information to parents with families including guidelines regarding subject participation Acknowledging the human dimension Observes and describes the role Audiotape and analyze that children and families play in the speech/language samples development of speech and language (informal measures)
LEARNING OUTCOMES IN CASE STUDIES Learning OutcomesLearning Activity Skill in integration of knowledge Describes the purpose, the Creates appropriate tables and participant, the method, and the writes a description of the results project Generates two questions about the participant’s speech and/or language development. Writes a reflection paper about the research project
PROTOCOLS FOR THE CASE STUDY • Tell the family that the audio recording is for this class project only • You will keep the audio recording in a safe place. • Tell the family that they can have the audio recording after you have completed the project • Tell the family that the presentation is in-class only and that no identifying information will be included in the presentation
ORGANIZATION • Describe the case study and dates for each component to be completed • Part 1: Locate articles from peer-reviewed journals (Instructor approval) - Summarize the articles – Teach how to write a summary • Part 2: Find a family willing to participate in the project - Complete audio taping, transcription, and analysis a) Phonetics 1. Phonetic transcription and analysis of the child’s speech 2. Written report b) Speech and Language Acquisition 1. Analysis of the child’s language e.g., protowords, MLU, vocabulary, early syntax 2. Written report 4. Part 3: In-class Poster Session
RATIONALE FOR IN-CLASS POSTER SESSION • Large number of students in the classes • Grading papers • In-class oral presentations mean that one student is talking and everyone else is sitting and filling out presentation forms Student presenter is excited Most students are sitting Minimal interaction – student to student, faculty to student Large classes mean several class sessions devoted to oral presentations How much learning is occurring?
IN-CLASS POSTER SESSION • Designing a poster – visual presentation What should we include? • Oral presentation – What should we say? • Students’ develop learning outcomes – What do you want the audience (your peers) to learn from your poster? • Peer review – provide written comments to each presenter - one positive comment - one suggestion for improvement • Write a reflection paper concerning the case study project and presenting during the in-class poster session.
STUDENT CONTRIBUTION • Article Summary Develop a table – purpose, participants, methods, results, and clinical implications • In-class poster session became the final examination Allowed for more than 2 hours for the poster session
FACULTY – STUDENT DIALOGUE DURING THE IN-CLASS POSTER SESSION • Discussion with students allows faculty to focus on: Critical Thinking: E.g., Asking questions about each student’s presentation Being aware of gaps in available information Discriminating between observation and inference Self-reflection: Discussion assists in developing self-reflection • Student – Faculty – Student ………… Dialogue Commenting on each other’s posters and presentations fosters learning in a non- competitive atmosphere An In-Class Poster Session is Fun!!!
STUDENTS’ COMMENTS IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE IN-CLASS POSTER SESSIONS “ I enjoyed reading the bilingual research articles and relating them to the child that I used” “ Presenting the poster boards and holding discussions in our class was a great way to learn more about other topics than just our own.” “ Overall this project turned out to be helpful, educational and interesting. I especially enjoyed discussing my project personally with others and being able to give direct answers to individuals or small groups.”
PERFORMANCE-RELATED FEEDBACK “Successful instruction nearly always includes performance- related feedback” “Questioning and responding are classical ways to provide feedback to both student and teacher.” Brooks, Schraw, & Crippen (2005)
THE SPEECH AND LANGUAGE SKILLS OF A YOUNG CHILD WITH MOSAIC DOWN SYNDROME Jen Adler Undergraduate Student Undergraduate Program in Speech-Language Pathology Department of Speech Communication Studies Iona College Kosky, C, Adler, J., Cianci, A.M. The speech and language skills of a young child with Mosaic Down syndrome. Poster session at The New York State Speech Language Hearing Association 2007 Convention Buffalo, New York
CASE STUDIES “Together with lectures and labs, case studies assist students in acquiring content knowledge, process skills, and an understanding of the context and application of science to their daily lives.” Camill (2006)
Undergraduate Program in Communication DisordersMercy College Communication Disorders – Organic Course syllabus was developed by Associate Professor Elizabeth Galletta, Ph.D Includes: 3 part research project Literature review and research question, Method section Results section Students make 3 oral presentations as part of the research project Literature review and research question Method section Results section Permission granted by Elizabeth Galletta, Ph.D
RUBRICS FOR ASSESSMENT OF ORAL PRESENTATIONS • Assessment of Content • Assessment of Handout • Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills
SIGNIFICANT LEARNING ACTIVITIES Professional Portfolios (Semester length) Courses: Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Speech Pathology 1 Speech Pathology 2 Undergraduate Program in Speech – Language Pathology Department of Communication Studies Iona College
COURSE PORTFOLIOS Four Parameters: • Type and level of class • Purpose of the portfolio • Audience for the portfolio • Criteria for assessment - followed the format of the comment paper
Courses and Content • Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Knowledge of basic human communication processes: - biological, neurological, psychological, and developmental bases Topic: - Genetic and Non – Genetic Syndromes Advantage: - Expanding the knowledge base gives students a good foundation for future courses. E.g., Speech Pathology 2 – cleft palate and craniofacial disorders
Courses and Content 2. Speech Pathology 1 - Knowledge of multilingual and multicultural issues, articulation and phonological disorders, receptive and expressive language disorders literacy and literacy disorders 3. Speech Pathology 2 - Knowledge of stuttering and other fluency disorders, voice and resonance disorders, cleft palate and craniofacial disorders, neurogenic disorders of speech, and acquired receptive and expressive language disorders
STUDENTS’ ROLES IN PORTFOLIOS Assume responsibility for documenting and interpreting their own learning - Collection - Selection - Reflection Archive their work: e.g., homework, class projects, journals, presentations, peer review notes, research articles Students revisit or revise their work Revisiting past work: Improve the earlier work Comment in a way that demonstrates their thinking around the work Students make their thinking visible
FACULTY’S ROLE IN PORTFOLIOS • Give the rationale/purpose 2. Audience: Students (Many students show the portfolios to friends and family • Define the content • Organization • Assessment: - Mid term semester review (instructor) – comment paper - In- class peer review – comment paper - Final – format of the comment paper
FACULTY – STUDENT DIALOGUE • In – class discussion - Websites - National and local organizations/support groups - Personal stories – National Public Radio, New York Times - Students relate to personal stories E.g., Williams Syndrome led to a student writing a research paper based on her family’s experience of a child identified with a genetic syndrome who died soon after birth B) Using Blackboard - Discussion
FORMAT OF A COMMENT PAPER Course: Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism Content and organization • Preface • Title page • Content page • Dividers with titles and labeled tabs • Definition of a syndrome • Descriptions of each syndrome • Differentiating genetic from non-genetic syndromes • Information from National Associations/Support Groups/Web sites • One peer-reviewed article for each syndrome • Personal Stories • Glossary – vocabulary -definitions and source
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTSPORTFOLIOS • HIERARCHY OF PORTFOLIOS a) First experience – collect and organize b) Second experience – collect, organize, and journaling c) Third experience – metacognitive reflection on collection choices and organization (Hagstom, F., McGehee, M., Aslin, L., 2006) • ELECTRONIC PORTFOLIOS Web- based portfolio can be assessed using a 4- point rubric involving the main elements of content, organization, and ease of use. Ease of use is difficult because the students may not have had any experience in using this type of portfolio.
REFERENCES Bain, K, (2004) What the best college teachers do. Harvard University Press Brooks, D.W., Schraw, G., & Crippen, K.J. (2005) Performance – related feedback: The hallmark of efficient instruction. Journal of Chemical Education, 82, 641 – 644 Camill, P. (2006) Case studies add value to a diverse teaching portfolio in science courses. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36, 2, 31 - 37 Fink (2003) Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco. CA Jossey- Bass Hagstom, F., McGehee, M., Aslip (2006) Undergraduate KASA Requirements: Starting with professional identity. ASHA Miami, FL Kosky, C. Adler, J. & Cianci, A.M. (2007) The speech and language skills of a young child with Mosaic Down Syndrome. Poster session at The New York State Speech Language Hearing 2007 Annual Convention, Buffalo, NY Maxwell, D. L.. & Satake, E. (2006) Research and statistical methods in communication sciences and disorders. Thompson Delmar Learning Yancey, K.B. in Cambridge, B.L. (2001) Electronic portfolios: Emerging practices in Student, Faculty, and Institutional Learning. American Association for Higher Education Yancey, K.B. (1998) Reflection in the writing classroom. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press
THANK YOU! …… to the students in the Undergraduate Program in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology at Iona College These significant learning activity projects came to fruition because of your input, motivation, and excitement. ……… to the students in the Undergraduate Program in Communication Disorders at Mercy College. Thank you for your warm welcome, and your interest and desire to learn