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  1. BLENDED LEARNING „…becausepeopleare no single-method learners !“

  2. Overview • What is blended learning? • Blended learning theories • Blended learning design/ingredients • Blended learning models • How to build an effective blend • ALN principles for blended environments 7. Blended works – here´s proof Technology Enhanced Learning

  3. Whatis blended learning? … a solution that combines several different delivery methods, such as collaboration software, Web-based courses, EPSS and knowledge management practices. … learning that mixes various event-based activities, including face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning and self-paced learning. Technology Enhanced Learning

  4. Whatis blended learning?  a planned combination of approaches • Coaching by a supervisor • Participation in an online class • Breakfast with colleagues • Competency descriptions • Reading on the beach • Reference to a manual • Collegial relationships • Participation in seminars, workshops, online communities Technology Enhanced Learning

  5. Whatis blended learning? Blends are characterized by … … customization … integration … purpose … flexibility … redundancy Technology Enhanced Learning

  6. Blended learning theories “Learning theories aren´t like religion. You don´t have to pick Catholic or Baptist or Muslim, and shun the others. The goal is to have the right theory for the right situation.” Allison Rossett Technology Enhanced Learning

  7. Blended learning theories The situation is dependant upon… …the people you serve …the nature of the skills they must master …the context in which they are to perform  situational instructional design model Technology Enhanced Learning

  8. COGNITIVISM Merrill Clark Bloom Gagné Keller BLENDED LEARNING THEORY Piaget Gery PERFORMANCE SUPPORT Vygotsky CONSTRUCTIVISM A blend of learning theories Technology Enhanced Learning

  9. Blended learning design 5 key ingredients for blended learning: 1 Live events 2 Self-paced learning 3 Collaboration 4 Assessment 5 Performance support materials Technology Enhanced Learning

  10. Ingredients for blended learning  formal and informal, technology- and people-based, independent and convivial, directive and discovery-oriented Assessment Performance support materials Self-paced learning Self-paced learning Live events Live Event Collaboration Technology Enhanced Learning

  11. Ingredient 1: Live events • live, synchronous events are main “ingredient” of blended learning • nothing can replace the ability to tap the expertise of a live instructor • J. Keller “ARCS-Model” of Motivation Attention Relevance Satisfaction Confidence Technology Enhanced Learning

  12. Attention  gaining and (!) keeping the learner´s attention + begin class by telling a joke + or by polling the learners with a thought-provoking question = engaged online-learners, who are prepared for learning  Technology Enhanced Learning

  13. Relevance  learners only stay focused when they believe the training is relevant to their specific situation + use examples or analogies familiar to the audience + show how course information can be used to solve real problems  Technology Enhanced Learning

  14. Confidence  learners must have confidence in their skills and abilities in order to remain motivated + make classroom expectations clear + give learners ample time to practice their new skills = experience of success and confidence  Technology Enhanced Learning

  15. Satisfaction  learners must be satisfied with the results of their learning experiences in order to remain motivated + provide learners with opportunities to use new skills  Technology Enhanced Learning

  16. Ingredient 2: Self-paced learning • self-paced, asynchronous learning events add significant value to the blended learning equation • must be based on effective implementation of traditional and modern instructional design principles Multimedia and Modern Design Theory Technology Enhanced Learning

  17. Ruth Clark (2002): • The Multimedia Principle  adding graphics to text can improve learning • The Contiguity Principle  placing text near graphics improves learning • The Modality Principle  explaining graphics with audio improves learning Technology Enhanced Learning

  18. Ingredient 3: Collaboration • humans are social beings  the power of learning is augmented when opportunities for meaningful collaboration exist • 2 types of collaboration produce effective results: peer-to-peer peer-to-mentor Technology Enhanced Learning

  19. Ingredient 4: Assessment • enables learners to “test out” of content they already know, fine-tuning their own blended learning experience • measures the effectiveness of all other learning modalities and events 6 Levels of Cognitive Learning (B. Bloom, 1956) Technology Enhanced Learning

  20. 6 Levels of Assessment • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation  “higher level” assessment Technology Enhanced Learning

  21. Ingredient 5: Performance support materials • most important ingredient  promotes “learning retention and transfer” to the work environment • several flavors: printable references job aids PDA downloads Technology Enhanced Learning

  22. Blended learning models NIIT categorizes blended learning into three models: • Skill-driven learning • Attitude-driven learning • Competency-driven learning Technology Enhanced Learning

  23. Skill-driven learning model • combines self-paced learning with instructor or facilitator support to develop specific knowledge and skills • requires regular feedback and support from the trainer, facilitator or peer Technology Enhanced Learning

  24. Skill-driven learning model Blended learning that´s skill-driven mixes interaction with a facilitator through e-mail, discussion forums and face-to-face meetings with self-paced learning, such as Web-based courses and books.  analogous to a chemical reaction Technology Enhanced Learning

  25. Skill-driven learning model Survey by the Masie Center (2000) 88% of learners and 91% of managers recommend that the trainer should be an active part of the online training program. They placed a high value on having the trainer monitor progress and contact the learner, evaluate online project-work, build and facilitate an online-community and be available via email or threaded discussion to respond to content questions. Technology Enhanced Learning

  26. Skill-driven learning model Combining self-paced learning with facilitator support … • keeps the learner from feeling isolated assists in the successful completion of the self-paced modules  works best when people are learning content at the knowledge or application levels Technology Enhanced Learning

  27. Skill-driven learning model Techniques to incorporate skill-driven learning include: • creating a tightly scheduled group learning plan • using instructor-led overview and closing sessions • using synchronous learning labs • providing support to learners trough email Technology Enhanced Learning

  28. Skill-driven blended learning plan Technology Enhanced Learning

  29. Attitude-driven model • blends traditional classroom-based learning with online collaborative learning events • mixes various events and delivery media to develop specific behavior • at times, the nature of the content, as well as the desired outcome (developing attitudes and behavior) necessitates the inclusion of collaborative learning Technology Enhanced Learning

  30. Attitude-driven model • content that deals with developing new attitudes and behaviors requires peer-to-peer interaction and a risk-free environment For example soft skill courses: • Role playing Technology Enhanced Learning

  31. Attitude-driven blended learning plan Technology Enhanced Learning

  32. Competency-driven model • blends performance support tools with knowledge management resources and mentoring to develop workplace competencies • to capture and transfer tacit knowledge, learners must interact with and observe experts on the job  for learning that facilitates the transfer of tacit knowledge Technology Enhanced Learning

  33. Competency-driven blended learning plan Technology Enhanced Learning

  34. How to build an effective blend… • Consider: stability & urgency touches & costs learning resources & experience Technology Enhanced Learning

  35. stable Simulations Scenarios Workshops Web learning modules Video & Audio CD/DVDs Workbooks Role modeling Collegial connections Live e-learning Documentation CONTENT STABILITY Online resource links On-the-job training Online bulletin boards Print job aids Email Online communities Live e-learning Mentoring E-mentoring volatile Short development Long development TIME TO IMPLEMENT Technology Enhanced Learning

  36. Human On-the-job training Coaching Online communities Email Role modeling Mentoring Instructor-led classroom Workshops Live e-learning TOUCHES Simulations Web learning modules Scenarios Performance support tools Online help systems Workbooks Online knowledge databases Video & Audio CD/DVDs Online resource links System Low High COSTS Technology Enhanced Learning

  37. Extensions Coaching Mentoring Listservs Online communities Email Work teams Print job aids Online help systems Online resource links Online self-assessments LEARNING RESOURCES Workbooks Documentation Scenarios Video & Audio CD/DVDs Web learning modules Live e-learning Live simulations On-the-job training Workshops Instruction Social Independent EXPERIENCE Technology Enhanced Learning

  38. How to build an effective blend… • Deliver assets and guidance • Work cross-functionally • Encourage independence & conviviality • Focus on flexible options for employees & customers • Put people in the middle of the blend • Communicate, communicate, communicate • Embrace redundancy • Take on key initiatives and measure results Technology Enhanced Learning

  39. 12 ALN Principles for blended environments • Begin with a shared vision of how technology can improve teaching and learning. • Develop efficiences in cost and scalability. • Identify ways to meet the needs of individual learners. • Provide continuous support for role adjustment. Technology Enhanced Learning

  40. 5) Provide active institutional support and recognition for faculty. 6) Ensure learning design appropriately integrates face-to-face and online components. 7) Promote metacognitive reflection on the process of learning. 8) Provide timely feedback and clear expectations for response time. Technology Enhanced Learning

  41. 9) Integrate student services. 10) Plan early for course development. 11) Provide continuous training & support. 12) Choose appropriate technology. Technology Enhanced Learning

  42. What are the advantages of blended learning? • greater access to a range of appropriate, personalized and individualized learning, teaching and resources • greater accommodation for learners and teachers of diverse ages, styles, expertise, nationalities and cultures, who can connect from multiple settings such as homes, workplaces, libraries, countries,… Technology Enhanced Learning

  43. What are the advantages of blended learning? • greater flexibility and cost effectiveness in terms of mission, scalability, breadth, time, value and infrastructure • greater student and faculty satisfaction Technology Enhanced Learning

  44. Blended works – here´s proof • Dean et al. (2001) study about the effectiveness of combined delivery modalities for distance learning and resident learning  providing several linked options for learners, in addition to classroom training, increased what they learned Technology Enhanced Learning

  45. Blended works – here´s proof • DeLacey & Leonard (2002) technology and distance in education at the Harvard Business School  students not only learned more when online sessions were added to traditional courses; their interaction and satisfaction improved as well Technology Enhanced Learning

  46. Blended works – here´s proof • Thomson & NETg (2003)  speedier performance on real world tasks by people who learned through a blended strategy – faster than those studying through e-learning alone Technology Enhanced Learning

  47. Blended works – here´s proof • Thomson Job Impact Study (1999)  focused on teaching elements of Microsoft Excel to three different groups of people group 1: blended approach group 2: e-learning approach group 3: control group/no training Technology Enhanced Learning

  48. Group 1 • 5 Excel scenario-based exercises that provided a realistic business situation that could be applied to real-world tasks • arranged in ascending order of difficulty • access to supporting materials (NETg Excel Fundamentals Learning Objects, online mentors, FAQs, relevant Web sites) Technology Enhanced Learning

  49. Group 2 • completed standard NETg E-learning Excel Fundamentals course • no scenarios, but the same Excel learning objectives • option of consulting with an online mentor, FAQs, book links, pertinent Web sites Technology Enhanced Learning

  50. Results  Group 1 showed a 30% increase in accuracy of performance over Group 2  159% more accuracy than the untrained Control group (Group 2: 99%)  Group 1 completed real-world tasks 41% faster than the e-learning group (SBEs enhanced the learners understanding of procedural knowledge) Technology Enhanced Learning