Types Of Cardiovascular Disease • Atherosclerosis • Coronary heart disease (CHD) • Chest pain (angina pectoris) • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) • Congestive heart failure (CHF) • Congenital and rheumatic heart disease • Stroke
Percentage Breakdown of Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease in the United States, 2001
Cardiovascular Disease • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the U.S. • In 2005 CVD accounted for approximately 38 percent of all deaths • CVD has been the number one killer in the U.S. since 1900 except for 1918 (influenza) • More that 2,500 Americans die from CVD each day • Among women, 1 in 2.6 deaths from CVD
Prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases in American Men and Women, Ages 20 and Older
Cardiac Trivia • Heart contracts 100,000 times per day
Artherosclerosis • Characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of the artery • Hyperlipidemia – abnormally high blood lipid level • Plaque – the buildup of deposits in the arteries
Coronary Heart Disease • Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack – blood supplying the heart is disrupted • Coronary thrombosis – blood clot in the artery • Embolus – when the blood clot is dislodged and moves through the circulatory system
Angina Pectoris • Ischemia – reduction of the heart’s blood and oxygen supply • The more serious the oxygen deprivation the more severe the pain • Drugs Used to Treat angina • Nitroglycerin – drug used to relax (dilate) the veins(vasodilator) • Beta blockers lower the heart rate
Arrhythmias • An irregularity in heart rhythm • 3 Types • Tachycardia – racing heart in the absence of exercise or anxiety • Bradycardia – abnormally slow heartbeat • Fibrillation – heart beat is sporadic, quivering patter
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) • Damaged or overworked heart muscle is unable to keep blood circulating normally • Affects over 5 million Americans • Damage to heart muscle may result from: rheumatic fever, pneumonia, heart attack, or other cardiovascular problem • Lack of proper circulation may allow blood to accumulate in the vessels of the legs, ankles, or lungs • Diuretics relieve fluid accumulation
STROKE • Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted • Thrombus – blood clot • Embolus – free flowing clot • Aneurysm – bulging or burst blood vessel • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – brief interruptions that cause temporary impairment
Congenital And Rheumatic Heart Disease • Congenital heart disease affects 1 out of 125 children born • May be due to hereditary factors, maternal diseases, or chemical intake (alcohol) during fetal development • Rheumatic heart disease results from rheumatic fever which affects connective tissue
Congenital Heart defects • Present at birth • Examples: • 1. patent ductusarteriosus • 2. atrial septal defect • 3. ventral septal defect • 4. Tetralogy of Fallot
Diagnosing heart disease • Electrocardiogram (ECG) • Angiography • Cardiac catheterization • Cardiac Enzymes • Radionuclide imaging • Echocardiography • Stress test
Treatment for Cardiovascular Diseases • Surgical • Pharmacological • Electrical
Angioplasty(PCTA) • Angioplasty is a procedure to restore blood flow through the artery. • You have angioplasty in a hospital. The doctor threads a thin tube through a blood vessel in the arm or groin up through the blocked artery or arteries. The catheter has a balloon on the tip which is inflated to flatten the fatty deposits against the wall of the artery • This widens the artery and restores blood flow. • Many people go home the day after angioplasty, and are able to return to work within a week of coming home.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft(CABG) • The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow to the heart. The surgeon takes a healthy piece of vein from the leg or artery from the chest or wrist. Then the surgeon attaches it to the coronary artery, just above and below the narrowed area or blockage. This allows blood to bypass (get around) the blockage..
Thrombolytic Therapy/Stroke Treatment • If victim reaches an emergency room and is diagnosed quickly, thrombolysis can be performed • Thrombolysis involves injecting drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) to dissolve the clot and restore some blood flow
Pacemaker Implantation • Electrical device that controls the beating of the heart by a series of rhythmic electric impulses; Can be internal or external
Intracoronary Artery Stent • Placement of a stent(tube) within a coronary artery to treat coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis
Heart Transplantation • Replacement of a diseased or malfunctioning heart with a donor’s heart.
Pharmacological Treatment • Antiarrhythmic drugs • Anticoagulants – prevent blood clot formation • Antilipidemics- • Diuretics- • Vasoconstrictors- • Vasodilators-
Emergency Treatments • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CBR)- used if someone is in cardiac arrest • Defibrillation- procedure that converts irregular heartbeats, by giving electric shocks to the heart. Also called cardioversion.
Reducing Your Risk For Cardiovascular Disease • Risks you CAN control • Avoid tobacco • Cut back on saturated fat and cholesterol • Maintain a healthy weight • Modify dietary habits • Exercise regularly • Control diabetes • Control blood pressure • Manage Stress
Reducing Your Risk For Cardiovascular Diseases • Risks you CANNOT control • Heredity • Age • Gender • Race