eBay廣告 • eBay台灣廣告 • eBay Commercial • Yahoo奇摩拍賣
Figure 14.7Ansoff’s growth matrix identifying opportunities for growth for eBay
1. eBay is one of the only major Internet-based firms to consistently make a profit from its inception. What is eBay’s business model? Why has it been so successful? • eBay’s business model is in some ways a traditional intermediary. It takes a small cut of the money from every trade from the seller and the buyer (now with Paypal). The amounts of money are very small and it is simply because the business is online that this enables eBay to make the transaction cost so low. This in turn means that while it may only make a few pennies from every trade, millions of pennies soon add up to millions of dollars.
2. Other major websites, like Amazon.com and Yahoo, have entered the auction marketplace with far less success than eBay. How has eBay been able to maintain its dominant position? • It is true that eBay was not first in the market. It was one of the first and it bought up other online auction houses around the world. There are many reasons that lie behind eBay’s success, but the community of users cannot be overstated. It has worked hard to try to maintain the spirit of the traditional community of traders. It has used this to develop new services and it is the community of traders that has driven the new service development. eBay does not need to spend large sums of money trying to understand what the customers want because the customers constantly request and suggest changes. • The purchase of Paypal was a significant investment and successful move. eBay’s own online payment system was not liked. The purchase of Skype has yet to deliver. However, many opportunities exist.
3. Why did eBay ban the leaving of negative feedback on buyers? What has been the impact of this change? • eBay felt it had to act because buyers (the people parting with their cash) were receiving negative comments partly in retaliation from sellers who did not like any form of criticism. Even when the criticism may have been justified such as slow delivery or the item was not as described. Ultimately, buyers have power and eBay has returned some of the power back to them. If buyers began to walk away, the whole business model could have collapsed. • The impact of the change has been marginal. This is partly because of the continued growth albeit at a slower pace.
4. eBay makes every effort to conceptualise its users as a community (as opposed to, say ‘customers’ or ‘clients’). What is the purpose of this conceptual difference and does eBay gain something by doing it? • It is the eBay community which has designed the business model. eBay supports the desire to respond to the user community by employing approximately 5,000 people, about half of whom are involved in customer support and about 20 per cent of whom are in technology. eBay does not need to spend large sums of money trying to understand what their customers want because their customers constantly request and suggest changes. In 2003, for example, over 1,00,000 messages, in which tips were shared and system glitches highlighted, were posted by users each week. The technology systems that eBay has introduced over time enable the company to trace every move of every potential customer, yielding rich information that can be acted upon. In addition, category managers for eBay play a crucial role in the company’s development. Unlike others, say product managers in large firms, their roles involve listening, adapting and enabling. It is their responsibility to develop tools that help users buy and sell more effectively.
5. eBay has long been a marketplace for used goods and collectibles. Today, it is increasingly a place where major businesses come to auction their wares. Why would a brand-name vendor set up shop on eBay? • In 2004, eBay began offering commercial sellers the concept of a shop on the site, where they could direct consumers to view more of their merchandise. This has proved extremely popular for the large sellers. • The move in 2004 to sell an increasing number of goods at fixed prices, rather than through auction, was seen as controversial among some suppliers. So too has the strategy of attracting large corporate sellers – such as IBM, now the biggest supplier – which has raised fears among smaller, traditional clients. Such moves risk antagonising the ‘power sellers’, the army of entrepreneurs that have formed the bedrock of eBay’s sellers and make their living by trading on the site. They provide the liquidity that makes eBay the dominant online auctioneer. Many sellers welcome the changes because of the new buyers they attract to the site. Others, however, believe corporations will get special treatment from eBay and this will destroy its culture.
6. Many analysts have argued that by moving to fixed-price sales eBay is risking alienating its traditional community of garage/car boot traders. How can eBay stop becoming just another site for selling? • The answer surely lies in placing emphasis on its community of traders. This eBay community includes more than a hundred million registered members from around the world. It is this community that can make eBay different. It made eBay different, but recent strategic moves may be moving eBay away from its community of users to a more corporate business model. Ensuring the eBay community remains in control and has the power to change and influence trading will help.
7. Given the growth opportunities available to eBay, which ones and in which order should it develop? • VOIP, the online payment system (Paypal) and the eBay community should create new experiences and encourage new developer solutions at the intersection of the three businesses. How open the enlarged business is to the innovation in the developer community could well determine its success. There is a shared opportunity for the company and independent developers. eBay will undoubtedly find ways to achieve a return on the huge investment it has made in Skype, but the rewards could be all the richer if it opens the platform to outside influences. It is worthy of note that what was a weakness for eBay – its technology – has now become a strength.
eBay 在台灣 • eBay v.s. 淘寶網
2002年2月，eBay購併當時台灣網拍翹楚力傳資訊，連帶擁有力傳資訊旗下的「買賣王」（ubid.com.tw）及「拍賣王」（bid.com.tw）網站。2002年6月20日，eBay以「eBay台灣」（tw.ebay.com）為名正式進軍台灣，力傳資訊正式走入歷史。然而，既有市場早已逐漸流失到Yahoo!奇摩拍賣，也無力展開有效反擊，因此決定結束台灣區的網拍事業（但保留台灣與海外的跨國交易線），將台灣的客戶群轉手給台灣當地著名IT企業PChome Online網路家庭，改以聯合投資（Joint-Venture）的方式維繫。 • 2006年6月5日，雙方聯名宣佈進行合作投資，並將於同年下半年推出聯名拍賣網站，不過經營主控權在PChomeOnline。9月6日，聯名新網站定名為「露天拍賣」，計畫於9月25日公開上線。10月13日，eBay台灣網站正式關閉。 • 暫不收費的露天拍賣帶給了已開始徵收商品刊登費的Yahoo!奇摩拍賣一些衝擊，特別是不滿Yahoo!奇摩拍賣又於2006年9月1日開徵3%「交易手續費」的用戶。露天拍賣為此也特別設置了「露天移民局」及「Y拍評價認證」制度，來吸納由Yahoo!奇摩拍賣出走的客戶。
eBay台灣成立四年來，為什麼會落到「挫敗」這個田地呢？業界表示，其主要原因有二，首先是購併力傳資訊之後的平台轉換不成功；另外，堅持全球化平台策略在本地市場水土不服。eBay台灣成立四年來，為什麼會落到「挫敗」這個田地呢？業界表示，其主要原因有二，首先是購併力傳資訊之後的平台轉換不成功；另外，堅持全球化平台策略在本地市場水土不服。 • eBay在二○○二年時以新台幣三億多元購併當時本地知名電子商務網站力傳資訊，旗下擁有「買賣王」及「拍賣王」兩個網站。eBay收掉了 B2C為主的買賣王，留下拍賣業務為主的拍賣王。當移轉平台時，堅持要所有賣家採用eBay全球的平台規格，即賣家的店及名稱，都得要採用英文名稱。原本 在拍賣王上面，以「小花」、「XX的店」闖出名號的個人電子商城，只好被迫採用英文名稱，對於賣家來說，換了名稱等於一切要重頭開始，不但要重新建立顧客 關係，也要重新打知名度。eBay購併力傳資訊的平台轉換案例，被eBay全球視為最糟糕的一個案例。 • 另外，eBay公司內部也有路線之爭，即堅持全球化平台還是擁抱本地化策略。當eBay退出日本市場後，台灣市場策略大轉彎，加上中國大陸陷入苦戰。如今，eBay決定以模組化建構全球化的平台，讓各地區分公司依據需 求來架構符合當地市場的平台。 • eBay未來所擁抱的是有彈性的全球化平台架構，而非全球統一平台。
Starbucks成功行銷海外 • 從早期西雅圖派克市場裡不起眼的咖啡店，Starbucks搖身一變成為國際行銷最成功的案例之一 • Starbucks活用各種不同市場進入策略，包括直接投資、授權和加盟 如今，Starbucks在全球35個國家擁有超過1萬2千家連 鎖店，儼然建立咖啡帝國