Chapter 4 Seven Phonics Generalizations 1) The C Rule Because the letter c has no phoneme of its own, it assumes two other phonemes found in different words, k and s. 2) The G Rule G is irregular in that it has a hard and a soft sound. 3) The CVC Generalization When a vowel sound comes between two consonants, it usually has the short vowel sound. 4) Vowel Digraphs When two vowels come together in a word, the first vowel is usually long and the second one is silent, especially with the oa, ee, and ay combinations. 5) The VCE (Final E) Generalization When two vowels appear in a word and one is an e at the end of the word, the first vowel is generally long and the final e is silent. 6) The CV Generalization When a consonant is followed by a vowel, the vowel usually produces a long sound. 7) R-Controlled Vowels Vowels that appear before the letter r are usually neither long nor short but tend to be overpowered or “swallowed” by the r sound.
Chapter 5 Principles for Effective Vocabulary Instruction 1. Vocabulary is learned best through direct, hands-on experience. 2. Teachers should offer definitions as well as content during vocabulary instruction. 3. Effective vocabulary instruction must include a depth of learning component as well as a breadth of word knowledge. 4. Students need to have multiple exposures to new reading vocabulary words.
Chapter 6 Nonnegotiable Skills for Reading Comprehension 1. Recalling word meanings (vocabulary). 2. Drawing inferences about the meaning of a word from context. 3. Finding answers to questions answered explicitly or in paraphrase. 4. Weaving together ideas in the content. 5. Drawing inferences from the context. 6. Recognizing a writer’s purpose, attitude, tone, and mood. 7. Identifying a writer’s literary techniques. 8. Following the structure of a passage.
Chapter 9 Principles of Classroom Assessment 1. Assessment should inform and improve teaching. 2. Assessment procedures should help teachers discover what children can do, not what they cannot do. 3. Every assessment procedure should have a specific purpose. 4. Classroom assessment should provide insight into the process of reading. 5. Assessment procedures should help identify zones of proximal development. 6. Assessment strategies should not supplant instruction. 7. The only true value and competent assessment is individual assessment.
Chapter 13 SQ3R A study system for use with expository text SURVEY the chapter QUESTION the survey and make predictions about the content READ the chapter RECITE answers and self-assess REVIEW the information learned