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Thirteen English Colonies

Thirteen English Colonies

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Thirteen English Colonies

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  1. Thirteen English Colonies

  2. Essential Topics/Questions • What factors shaped each of the four colonial areas – economically, socially, politically culturally? • Compare and contrast the Chesapeake and New England colonies. • How do precedents from the colonial period impact or shape the development of American society? • What are the ideas of liberty that emerge? What are rights of Englishmen?

  3. Analysis • S – social and cultural • P – political • R – religious • I –intellectual • T- technological • E – economic • D - diplomatic

  4. Chesapeake Colonies Virginia Maryland

  5. TheLondonCompany,1606

  6. Jamestown Settlement 1609

  7. Jamestown Fort & Settlement(Computer Generated)

  8. Jamestown Housing

  9. Powhatan: Choices

  10. Powhatan Confederacy

  11. John Smith • Martial Law • Work

  12. Colonial Salvation: Tobacco

  13. Early Colonial Tobacco • 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. • 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.

  14. Unfree Labor: Indentured Servitude • Headright System

  15. Opportunity • Headright System: • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid • Indenture Contract: • 5-7 years. • Promised “freedom dues” [land, $] • Forbidden to marry. • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!

  16. High Mortality Rates • POPULATION: • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80% • After 1680 -1690 more stablity, declining death rates

  17. Widowarchy High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth Choice in marriage Control over property

  18. 1619 Precedents • House of Burgesses • First Slave Ship • Women

  19. Opechancanough’s Uprising 1622 • One fifth of Virginia’s population killed • Virginia Company bankrupt –colony royalized

  20. English Migration: 1610-1660

  21. River Settlements Large plantations – 100 acres Spread out – more than 5 miles Economic and Social problems Settlement Patterns:1620-1660

  22. 17c Populationin the Chesapeake

  23. Population of Chesapeake Colonies: 1610-1750

  24. Colonization of Maryland

  25. Act Concerning Religion - 1649 • Freedom of Worship for all Christians • Why – Roman Catholic concerns – they will become a minority & limited • Precedent

  26. The Restoration Colonies: Carolinas and Georgia • Utopian ideas • SC– ties with Barbados – strong plantation/staple crop base (sugar and slavery) West Indies impact; SC – rice and slavery • NC – Ablemarle – Scot-Irish from Va. – poor economy • 1701 –divided • Georgia as a place for the “deserving poor.” Diverse population.

  27. Restoration Colonies

  28. Settlement

  29. Staple Crops of South Carolina • Indigo • Rice

  30. Charleston Port City

  31. Rice & Indigo Exportsfrom SC & GA: 1698-1775

  32. Early Instability in Carolinas • 1715 - Yamasee War- Cherokee save- destructive Indian slave trade • royalization 1730 • Dense slave population greater sense of “fear” and stricter codes • Richer and more divided than the Chesapeake

  33. Davidson’s assessment • “And everywhere in the American South and the Southwest, white people’s lingering dreams were realized only through the labor of the least free members of colonial society.” • Indians in SW – Spanish • African Americans in S - English

  34. New England Colonies Plymouth – Pilgrims 1620 Massachusetts Bay –Puritans – 1630 Connecticut Rhode Island New Hampshire Vermont Maine (part of M Bay)

  35. New England Colonies

  36. Pilgrims/Puritans

  37. The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620

  38. Pilgrims & Puritans • Pilgrims – separatists • LMC/LC • Bradford • Mayflower Compact –self government; majority rule • Puritans – “purify” • MC/UMC • Winthrop • “City on a Hill” – not theocracy; not democracy – utopian • Great Migration – 1630-1642 – whole villages and families

  39. Winthrop – Liberty • Natural – “false” freedom – acting w/o restraint – do as one chooses • Christian/moral – freedom to obey God’s will – “visible saints” – submit to authority

  40. Sources of Puritan Migration

  41. Colonizing New England

  42. Population of the New England Colonies

  43. Basis of Stability and Problems • Family – came together –low mortality rates -tribalism • Church – conversion Halfway Covenant • Puritan Activism • Town – local government, participatory • Education – public – scripture reading – clergy training • Idea of Puritan Values • Focus on unity and social glue • Lawes and Liberties • Heresy = any challenge to the norm • Threatens unity • Division and tension over religious beliefs • Creates new colonies- RI/CN – Hooker Fundamental Orders of CN • Overtime more secular society – influence of commercialization & distance from original community