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  1. Testing Combination Systems CSA P.9“The Not-So Surprising Results”CMX- CIPHEX Show TorontoMarch 22, 2012Rosalyn CochraneSenior Standards EngineerNatural Resources Canada

  2. Outline • Why we needed a new standard • Comparison to ASHRAE SPC 124 • Further requirements for P.9 • Results of testing to P.9 • Future plans

  3. Background • Combos filled a market gap for low heating outputs • Growing Market • No way to determine combined performance

  4. Why do we need P.9 • Testing combos as an operating system, not individual components • Need to evaluate the complete system and recognize performance interactions and synergies • Smart integration • Advanced controls

  5. Issues with component based testing • Individual components tested and rated separately • Current component based Standards approaches • May be rated under unrealistic conditions • Synergies and smart controls not recognized • Different test conditions • Difficult to combine ratings into an overall rating

  6. Component Level Approach • Analogous to rating a furnace by evaluation of it’s sub-components: • Controls • Blowers • Burner • Heat exchanger

  7. P.9 vs. other methods • Tests and rates at the conditions in which the system operates, as opposed to being tested to current test methods that are strictly applicable to that component • Doesn’t force set points, which allow manufacturers to be creative with controls • Part load efficiency in space heating mode

  8. CSA P.9-11 Test method for determining the performance of combined space and water heating systems (combos)

  9. P.9 definition of a combo • Product or groups of individual components that form an integrated system that is designed to provide the functions of space and water heating • Use water as the heat transfer fluid • Heat generator - gas or oil-fired boiler or water heater • An air handler or fan coil for space heating • Controls integrated into package

  10. Scope of Combo Standard • Type A System: a combo with a fixed capacity for space heating; • Type B System: a combo equipped with controls that automatically adjust the space heating capacity based on the space heating load; and • Type C System: a combo with a thermal storage tank or equivalent that decouples the space heating load from the burner control.

  11. What P.9 does not cover Does not apply to • Hydronic distribution • electric and solar-based combo systems; • solid-fuel-based combo systems; and • multi-family dwellings with a central heating plant

  12. Overriding Principles • Overall performance factor needs to aggregate performance in each operating condition • Controls need to be operational during performance testing • Space heating needs to include part-load fractions • Consistent set-ups required where equipment functions need to be fully operational during all tests

  13. Principles continued • Technology neutral • Boiler based • Hot water heater based • Fuel neutral • Oil or gas

  14. P.9 Performance Descriptors • Thermal Performance Factor (TPF) • Composite Space Heating Efficiency (CSHE) • Water Heating Performance Factor (WHPF) • 1 hr Water Delivery Rating (OHR)

  15. Space Heating • Input-Output air enthalpy approach • Part load testing and rating based on load-weighted performance measurements • Part load space heating cyclic tests • 40% • 15% • Full load output • CSHE = 0.1xEff(100%)+0.6xEff(40%)+0.3xEff(15%) • Takes into account the energy input delivered to the airstream

  16. Water Heating • Water enthalpy method • 24 hr simulated use test to determine recovery efficiency • Combo capacity as a water heater determined and reported as a one hour rating • Additional capacity testing done with and without concurrent calls for space heating

  17. Overall Rating Thermal Performance Factor (TPF) TPF = 2000HCAP + 4400 [2000HCAP/CSHE] + [4400/WHPF] 2000 = an annualized aggregate rating of the number of full-load operating hours of the combo in space heating mode, h HCAP = full-load space heating system output, kW (Btu/h) 4400 = annual domestic hot water draw load based on the standardized water heating simulated use test (SUT), kWh CSHE = composite space heating efficiency WHPF = water heating performance factor

  18. Technologies tested? • Combo 1: Power vented non-condensing storage tank coupled with air handler with ECM • Combo 2: Power vented condensing commercial storage tank coupled with same air handler as Combo 1 • Combo 3: Condensing Boiler based packaged unit • Combo 4: Condensing tankless packaged unit • Combo 5: Condensing tankless packaged unit

  19. Combo 1: Conventional tank • Nominal Burner Input 40,000 Btu/h • Rated storage capacity 50 US gallons • Rated recovery efficiency of 82% • Rate EF of 0.68 • Intermittent pilot and electronic ignition • Paired with a packaged combo air handler with ECM with a rated heating capacity of 48,000 Btu/h

  20. Combo 2: Condensing Storage Tank • Nominal Burner Input 76,000 Btu/h • Rated storage capacity 50 US gallons (lab-tested capacity 48.3 gallons) • Rated recovery efficiency of 85% (compared with rated thermal efficiency of 90%) • Intermittent pilot and electronic ignition • Paired with a packaged combo air handler with ECM with rated heating capacity of 48,000 Btu/h

  21. Combo 3: Manufactured Unit • Nominal Burner Input 150,000 Btu/h • Condensing boiler • Modulating input burner 6:1 • DHW priority control • Segregated DHW supply

  22. Combo 4: Condensing Tankless • Nominal Burner Input 157,000 Btu/h • Modulating burner • High efficiency motor • DHW priority control • No segregated DHW supply

  23. Combo 5: Condensing Tankless • Nominal burner input 116,000 Btu/h • Modulating burner • High Efficiency Motor • Domestic hot water priority • Segregated DHW system

  24. Test Results

  25. Next Steps • Lab Testing: • more tankless water heater • Oil fired products • Boilers • Looking at the potential for more field testing • Codes and Standards • hydronic distribution systems in next revision to P.9 • Placement of minimum requirements in the code • Minimum regulations

  26. QUESTIONS