LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSTHE CARIBBEANPART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s heat flow causes lithospheric interactions, which cause EARTHQUAKES
Natural Phenomena that can Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s Restlessness causes subduction of tectonic plates, which can cause • TSUNAMIS
The Caribbean:long referred to as the West Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands; of these, 13 are independent island countries
ISLANDS POSSESSING MINOR VOLCANIC FEATURES • Aruuba, Barbados, Bahamas, Bonaire, Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, and Antigua
ISLANDS POSSESSING RUGGED MOUNTAIN RANGES • Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, ,Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad and Tobago
HAZARDS EXPOSURE VULNERABILITY LOCATION ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK RISK
EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE, GROUND SHAKING, GROUND FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION, LANDSLIDES), AFTERSHOCKS
TSUNAMI FAULT RUPTURE DAMAGE/ LOSS TECTONIC DEFORMATION DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS FOUNDATION FAILURE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE/ LOSS SITE AMPLIFICATION DAMAGE/ LOSS LIQUEFACTION DAMAGE/ LOSS LANDSLIDES DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS AFTERSHOCKS DAMAGE/ LOSS SEICHE DAMAGE/ LOSS GROUND SHAKING
35 30 25 UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE 20 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS 15 10 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME 5 0 V VI VII VIII IX CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE INTENSITY
CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
TSUNAMI HAZARDS TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP, WAVE REGRESSION, COASTAL EROSION
Tsunamis Are Associated with Subduction Zone Earthquakes • M 7 or larger earthquakes that occur in oceanic subduction zones can cause: • Tsunamis
CAUSES OF DAMAGE HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS TSUNAMIS FLOODING “DISASTER LABORATORIES” INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE OR A TSUNAMI INTERACT WITH A CARIBBEAN NATION’S COMMUNITIES
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS • A major earthquake (some accompanied by tsunamis) occurs on average every 50 years in the Caribbean.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS • In the past 500 years, a dozen major earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater (some with tsunamis) have occurred in the Caribbean near Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS • Before the March 12, 2010 destructive earthquake in Haiti, the most recent major earthquake was the M8.1 quake that occurred in 1946 off the northeast coast of the Dominican Republic, triggering a tsunami that killed about 1,800 people.
THE CARIBBEAN: DYNAMIC LABORATORIES FOR LEARNING • EACH CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI TEACHES IMPORTANT TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL LESSONS ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE.
M7.0 Haiti Earthquake that killed 230,000, largely because of the inadequacy of the building code, left survivors stuck in tent cities battling a hurricane (Tomas), cholera outbreak, and health-care problems for the rest of the year. THE DEADLIEST DISASTER OF 2010: MARCH 12, 2010
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI • At 10 am on October 11, 1918, the island of Puerto Rico was struck by a magnitude 7.5 earthquake, centered in the Mona Passage. approximately 15 kilometers off Puerto Rico’s northwestern coast
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI • The earthquake killed 80 and caused widespread destruction rated at $4 million across Puerto Rico. • The tsunami produced wave run-up as high as 6-12 m (20-35 feet) along the western coast of the island, killing at least 40.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE--TSUNAMI DISASTER ISEARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
WINDSTORM HAZARDS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION EQ-TS RISK POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK EQ-TS DISASTER RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION CARIBBEAN NATION’S COMMUNITIES HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL THE LIKELY HAZARDS IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE THREAT IDENTI-FICATION AND/OR EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN ARE INEVITABLE • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING EARTHQUAKE—TSUNAMI DIS-ASTER RESILIENT.