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Virginia Driver Education

Virginia Driver Education. Module Three. Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature. Topic 1 - Starting Tasks. Check/set park brake (P) and place Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance Key in ignition, and turn toward start

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Virginia Driver Education

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  1. Virginia Driver Education Module Three Vision, Vehicle Balance and Laws of Nature

  2. Topic 1 - Starting Tasks • Check/set park brake (P) and place • Right foot on brake pedal, heel on floor • Left foot on “dead pedal” for balance • Key in ignition, and turn toward start • Check alert, warning lights and gauges • Adjust ventilation, accessories, etc • Turn headlights on

  3. Securing the Vehicle • Find a legal, safe parking place • Stop and set parking brake • Shift gear selector to (P)ark (Shift to Reverse if Manual Transmission) • Close windows • Turn off accessories • Turn ignition switch to “off” • Lock ignition switch and remove key • Unfasten occupant restraints

  4. Exiting the Vehicle • Check traffic flow to rear prior to opening door • Monitor door swing into adjacent lane or when parked next to another vehicle • Exit quickly to avoid conflict with traffic • Lock doors • Walk toward rear of the vehicle facing traffic

  5. Topic 2 - Vision and Driving • Drivers base about 90% of all driving decisions on what they see, and 10% on what they hear or feel • Drivers must be able to look far enough ahead to make good decisions about speed, lane position, signs, signals, markings, and potential hazards • Drivers must be able to see near and far--close enough to read the speedometer, and far enough ahead to see/adjust for hazards

  6. Effective Use of Visual Fields The Three Visual Fields • Fovea Vision • Visual Lead, Targeting, Signs, Signals • Central • Referencing, Path of Travel • Peripheral Vision • Motion and Color Changes

  7. The Fovea Vision Area Located at the center of the central vision area, the fovea is a small part of the retina and is responsible for our highest visual acuity

  8. Central Vision Central Vision Area (Inner Fringe) An area 35 to 38 degrees around foveal vision used for: • Referencing Vehicle Position to Roadway • Viewing Path of Travel

  9. Central Vision at Night • The human eye’s field of vision is much smaller without the help of natural light • Depth perception, visual acuity, and color recognition are all compromised at night • Minimize glare by looking at the bottom right of the road to avoid approaching headlights • Keep it dark in the car • Slow down to give yourself longer to react

  10. Peripheral Vision Approximately 90of vision to each side Increases total field of vision to about 180-190and is used to see: • Objects to the side • Movement and color changes to the side

  11. Peripheral Vision and the Driving Task Drivers use peripheral vision to: • See color and object movement • See signal changes, road signs, warning lights on the dashboard • Monitor traffic • Stay within the lane

  12. Night Time Peripheral Vision • Is reduced dramatically due to lack of light to retina and glare • While Foveal and Central Vision are also reduced, they become more critical for searching for problems

  13. Vision is Affected by • Smoke • Age • Dirty Windshield • Poor Windshield Wipers • Poor night vision • Night Blindness • Speed • Fatigue • Drugs • Poor weather • Darkness • Glare • Inattention

  14. Depth Perception • Need both eyes to judge the distance between two objects • Depth perception allows you to: • judge gaps in traffic when turning, merging, or passing • judge distance when approaching a vehicle or obstruction

  15. Poor Depth Perception • Stop too far from the stop line or intersection • Stop too close to vehicles ahead • Move into gaps that are too small • Look for gaps that are larger than needed to perform a maneuver • Follow other vehicles at unsafe following distance • Hit parked cars when parking • Have “close calls” when entering traffic, passing, etc.

  16. As speed increases • Central vision decreases and blurs • Peripheral vision decreases • Changes in steering exaggerate vehicle movement VISION FIELDS NARROW

  17. Ways to Improve the Vision Fields • Clean windows—inside and out • Clean lights—be sure they work • Check defroster and wiper blades • Remove any objects that interfere with vision • Adjust mirrors properly • Keep sunglasses, flashlight, windshield scraper in vehicle

  18. Line of Sight • Line-of-sight is the distance you can see in your path of travel

  19. Line-of-Sight (LOS) Restrictions • Vision is blocked, speed and position adjustments may be needed until LOS is restored

  20. Path-of-Travel (POT) • The space the vehicle will occupy while traveling to the target area

  21. Examples of Path-of-Travel Restrictions • Space is not available for the vehicle Vehicle stopped or blocking intersection Narrow lane and no shoulder

  22. “Target” Far Ahead in the Path of Travel Identify the target in this driver’s path of travel A “Target” is an object or place far ahead in the center of your path of travel

  23. Target AREA Provides the BIG Picture The Target area is the area drivers must scan to the left and right of the target Target Area

  24. The Pavement Around Your Vehicle You Cannot See From the Driver’s Seat The driver cannot see anything on the ground in the area outlined above—cars are used to show the size of this area

  25. Determining Driver Blind Areas Marker (foot or cone) Place markers (cones, people) at the point where the driver can see the marker, (cone, person’s foot) in contact with the ground

  26. Using Lane Position to Maximize LOS 1 • Select the lane position that gives you the best line of sight and safest path of travel • Lane positions are based upon an average lane size of 12-feet wide, and a vehicle 6-feet wide 2 3 4 5

  27. Lane Position 1 2-3 Feet 2-3 Feet Positioned in the center of lane with an equal buffer of space on either side

  28. Lane Position 2 3-6 Inches Allows for 6 feet of space to the right of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a left turn or when avoiding a problem to the right of the vehicle.

  29. Lane Position 3 3-6 Inches Allows for 6 feet of space to the left of the vehicle. Used to prepare for a right turn or when avoiding a problem to the left of the vehicle.

  30. Lane Positions 4 and 5 4 5 Lane positions 4 and 5 – straddling the line to avoid a problem within a lane

  31. Topic 3 - Basic Maneuvers -- Steering • Holding the upper half of the wheel can result in excessive steering, air bag injuries, and upper body fatigue • Hands located on lower half of the • wheel offers: • Relaxed, balanced control • Reduces unwanted steering wheel movement • Improves stability by lowering the body’s center of gravity

  32. Hand-to-Hand/Push-Pull Steering Hand-to-Hand Steering/Push-Pull Right Turn Left Hand Pushes Up from 8 to 11 Right Turn Right Hand Pulls Down from 1 to 4

  33. Hand-Over-Hand Steering Used at Speeds below 15 mph Used for slow, tight turns - Arms cross on the top 1/3 of the wheel until desired path of travel is reached Left Turn/left hand Left hand pulls down, then reaches up to about theo’clock position and continues to pull 11-12 down to the left Left Turn/right hand Right Hand pushes up to about the 11 o’clock position

  34. One-Hand Steering • Is used when: • Backing straight--hand holds top of wheel • Backing a trailer--hand holds bottom of wheel Backing Position

  35. Covering the Accelerator • Used for a smooth transition from braking to accelerating • Allows the vehicle to coast which may speed up or slow down the vehicle • Permits the driver to be prepared for any needed acceleration

  36. Acceleration Techniques • Progressive, Smooth Acceleration • Heel pivots foot from the brake to the accelerator • Gently apply pressure to the accelerator pedal to gradually increase speed to minimize backward pitch and maintain vehicle balance

  37. Acceleration Techniques (cont) • 2. Thrust Acceleration • Typically used when passing or merging into higher speed traffic • Greater pressure is applied to accelerator pedal to rapidly increase speed without losing tire traction

  38. Braking Techniques Smooth braking technique: • Is a trait of a skilled driver • Saves wear and tear on the brake system and tires

  39. Methods to Reduce Speed Release the Accelerator • Most frequently used method to slow vehicle speed • Gradually reduce pedal pressure to avoid abrupt changes in speed

  40. Methods to Reduce Speed 2. Controlled Braking - When releasing the accelerator is not enough • Check the rear view mirror • Release accelerator and apply smooth, steady pressure on the brake pedal • For a smooth STOP, gently ease off the brake a few seconds before stopping to reduce the vehicle’s weight shift so the car does not pitch forward then backward during the final phase of stopping

  41. Methods to Reduce Speed (cont) 3. Threshold Braking in an Emergency Slows the vehicle as quickly as possible without locking brakes or losing traction • Release accelerator while checking traffic behind • Exert forceful pressure on brake pedal and you will feel the vehicle weight shift forward • If you feel the wheels begin to slide, ease the pressure on brake pedal so the tires can begin rotating again

  42. Methods to Reduce Speed (cont.) 4. Trail Braking – Used for Sharp Turns Occurs at the transition point where you slightly reduce pressure on the brake pedal to allow the vehicle to begin to regain speed before applying the accelerator

  43. Trail Braking 1. Use controlled braking prior to reaching the curve 2. Begin easing off brake, and trail brake with very light pressure until halfway through the turn, 3. Accelerate out of the turn

  44. Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) ABS allows maximum stopping force without locking up the brakes (skidding) If standard brakes are applied too hard, the wheels "lock" or skid, and you lose steering control.

  45. Anti-Lock Braking System (cont) If steering control is lost, the vehicle skids in a straight line wherever it is going ABS is an anti-lock/anti-skid brake system that allows the driver to steer during hard braking

  46. Anti-Lock Braking System (cont.) • The ABS warning will come on when there is a problem with either the ABS brake system, normal brake system, or the brake fluid is low in the master cylinder or the ABS brake system • To find out if a vehicle is equipped with ABS, turn on the ignition and check the instrument panel for the ABS indicator light

  47. Myths about ABS • There are fewer fatal crashes for cars equipped with ABS False, some drivers panic and/or release the brake when it pulses • Don’t use ABS brakes on a slippery surface • False, ABS shortens stopping distance and improves control on a slippery roads

  48. Maintaining Vehicle Balance • Vehicle balance is the distribution of the weight of the vehicle on the tires • Optimum balance is reached when the vehicle is not moving or is moving in a straight direction at a constant speed • As soon as the vehicle accelerates, brakes, or turns, the balance is changed and the weight transfer changes the size of the tire patches

  49. Inertia • Inertia wants to keep these parked vehicles at rest • Inertia also wants to keep these moving vehicles moving

  50. Inertia(cont.) When driving through this curve, inertia creates the sensation that you are being pulled toward the outside of the curve Why? Because you are traveling in a straight line, and inertia wants to keep you going in a straight line

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