Monitoring Student Progress: The Role of Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI Patricia Tenowich, M.A. Assessment Coordinator Kennedy Krieger High School Baltimore, Maryland MAG 2007 Conference November 15, 2007
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI Purpose of this session: To demonstrate the role of curriculum-based measurement in response to intervention. Participants will engage in activities to learn how to use easily accessible software (Excel) to effectively monitor student progress and assist decision-making. Activities include identifying aimlines, applying decision rules, graphing data, and discussing instructional implications.
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI • Note: The focus of this session is not to describe how the RTI process can implemented in schools. Rather, the purpose to provide an overview of RTI and describe how CBM can be used in the classroom to track and record student progress in specific learning areas.
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI Four Parts to the Session: • Review CBM in relation to RTI. • Define key terms. • Review elements of RTI and CBM. • Distinguish between CBM and CBA. • Compare and contrast current assessment practices. • Demonstrate data management techniques using Excel. • Provide practice to make decision rules, enter data, and evaluate response to intervention.
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI It is assumed the audience has: • Some familiarity with RTI. • Some experience with Excel. • Willingness to participate in discussion and hands-on activities.
Part I: CBM in Relation to RTI Key Terms • Response to intervention (RTI) • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) • Curriculum-based assessment (CBA) • Assessment • Informal vs. Formal • Evaluation
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms The history of learning disabilities (LD) has included much controversy about the procedures and criteria for determining students with LD. Most recently responsive to intervention (RTI) has gained momentum as a means of determining learning disabilities in school-age students. RTI replaces the Test-Score Discrepancy Model to identify learning disabilities . IDEA (2004) states, “In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention…”
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Review elements of RTI Intervention: a change of instruction in the area of learning difficulty in an attempt to improve performance and achieve adequate progress. Response to Intervention (RTI): (Also referred to as responsiveness-to-intervention) A research-based model to ensure students receive appropriate instruction. RTI is a multi-step approach to providing services to students who struggle within general education. Results are used to determine whether a student has a learning disability or to identify students at risk for academic failure.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms There is no single, widely accepted “model” of the RTI process. In general, a school organizes its model into levels or tiers. Each stage represents a continuum of increasing intensity of support.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms • Basically, all RTI models include the following: • Frequent, repeated, continuous monitoring of student classroom progress. • Examination of trends in performance to gauge the effectiveness of intervention. • Modification of instructional plans to address needs. • Various curriculum-based assessment models are useful in this role.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Distinguish between CBM and CBA. • Basically, CBM and CBA are both curriculum-based approaches to assessment designed to improve the instruction of individual students. • Terms are often confused and used interchangeably.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Curriculum-based assessment (CBA): refers to a wide range of informal assessment procedures within the classroom to monitor student progress. The focus is on the instructional level of students. Requirements of CBA: • Measurement materials are aligned with school curriculum. • Measurement is frequent. • Assessment information is used in instructional decision-making.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Curriculum-based measurement (CBM): refers to a specific method of monitoring student progress through direct, continuous assessment of academic skills toward long-term goals. Typically schools use standardized assessments to monitor student progress. Technically, CBM is a form of CBA because it meets all the requirements of CBA. CBM is used to address the question: “Is the student making progress towards a grade-level expectation or long-term goal?”
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms • The main purpose of progress monitoring is to determine whether the intervention is successful in helping the student learn at an appropriate rate. • As part of an IEP, progress monitoring also provides information about student progress toward short-term objectives and annual goals.
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Role of curriculum-based assessment Planning Instruction Assessment Informal Formal
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms Assessment: the process of gathering information (formally and informally) about a student for instructional decision-making. Measures knowledge and understanding. Evaluation: the process of making judgments about the quality of levels of academic performance. Measures level of achievement. Emphasizes quantitative value of student achievement (i.e., numeric scores or letter grades).
CBM in Relation to RTI Question: Can assessments be valid and reliable if teachers grade tests differently? Answer: Assessments for the purpose of progress monitoring can be valid and reliable at the teacher level if teachers use a consistent manner in grading. However, comparisons between teachers may not be valid and reliable if different grading procedures are used.
CBM in Relation to RTIAnswer: Informal: used to determine how well student performs compared to criteria for mastery, self, and classmates. Seeks to identify the strengths and needs of individual students without regard to grade or age norms. Formal: used to compare performance to others of the same age or grade. Have standardized procedures for administering, timing, and scoring. Assessments Informal Formal Classroom assignments, State testing, WJ-III, journals, essays, reports, WRAT, CTBS, WIAT, discussion groups, reading logs benchmarks
CBM in Relation to RTI Benefits of RTI as part of school’s procedures for identifying whether a student has a learning disability : • Reduce number of referrals for special education and increase number of students who succeed within general education. • Provide valuable information about instructional needs. • Reduce waiting time to receive instructional support. Limitations of RTI: • Schools’ use of RTI tends to focus on early elementary grades and limited to the area of reading, with some focus on math. • RTI identifies the low performing students within a group (i.e., grade). Students with high intelligence who may have a learning disability are likely not to be identified. • RTI alone is not sufficient to identify a student with a learning disability.
CBM in Relation to RTI What are the steps for schools to implement RTI? • Adopt research-based intervention strategies. • Align interventions with current assessment efforts to identify students “at-risk” for failure. • Train staff in CBM to collect frequent data about academic performance. • Establish intervention teams who can assist teachers and design appropriate intervention programs. • Design a RTI model.
Part II: Compare and ContrastCurrent Assessment Practices Activity: Get to into small groups to identify elements of progress monitoring you are currently practicing.
Compare and Contrast Assessment Practices Discussion: How do you know students are learning? What kind of data do you use to support your answer? When do you make instructional decisions about their progress? What types of decisions are made?
Compare and Contrast Current Assessment Practices Using CBM for instructional decision-making: • Pre Instruction (before instruction) Do learners possess pre-requisite knowledge/skills to achieve goal? • Formative (during instruction) Are learners progressing? If yes, are they being adequately challenged? If no, why not? Is it the pacing? The content? The instructional strategies? • Summative (upon completion of instruction) Did learners achieve desired instructional goal? • Diagnostic (during or upon completion) Why aren’t/didn’t students achieving the goal?
Compare and Contrast Current Assessment Practices Advantages of CBM : • Aligns with curriculum and instruction. • Relatively easy to administer. • Can be given often. • Can use a wide range of activities. • Sensitive to changes in student progress.
Part III: Demonstrate Data Management Techniquesusing Excel Now that you know the basics about CBM and how it relates to RTI, how do you manage your student data?
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Steps to applying what you’ve learned: • Analyze Curriculum • Prepare Probes • Probe Frequently • Graph the Data • Yield to the Results
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesUnderstanding the Steps 1. Analyze Curriculum: Identify realistic, measurable instructional objectives. Ask, “What do I want the students to learn?” 2. Prepare Probes to match curriculum: A probe is a structured assessment tool used to monitor a skill related to the objective. Probes must match learning objectives. A variety of probes should be used. Ask, “How will I measure student learning?” 3. Probe Frequently: The more information you have, the more accurate your instructional decisions will be.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesUnderstanding the Steps 4. Graph the Data: Most dreaded, yet powerful, component of CBA. a. Record and establish baseline for each student. b. Construct the aimline to judge student progress. c. Enter results of each probe as it is administered and scored. 5. Yield to the Results: Look for trends in student performance. Ask, “What are the data telling me?” and “How should instruction change based on the data?” Let’s get started with a demonstration….
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Sample of CBM module Title of Graph Students’ goal 90 80 70 60 50 40 Aimline 30 20 10 Probes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 % Correct
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Sample of CBA module Title of Graph Students’ goal 90 80 70 Student 1 60 Student 2 50 40 Aimline 30 20 10 Probes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 % Correct
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Steps for using Excel to Manage CBM to determine RTI
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2: Create a chart to analyze data. Select data and click the ChartWizard button.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2: Create a chart to analyze data. Select a chart that will best capture your data.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2: Create a chart to analyze data. Use options to provide titles.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2: Create a chart to analyze data.You will want to save chart as new sheet.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines.Add aimlines and trendlines to aid interpretation. Aimlines judge the effects of instruction & measure progress.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trend lines Trendlines show the general direction in which scores are going as indicated by a set of data.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines A trendline for that student will be added to the graph.
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines Now what? How do I know what it means? How do I know when to revise instruction? You can make decisions based on: • Recent consecutive scores or • The trendlines
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines Decision rules based on recent scores: Question: Are the 4 most recent scores above the aimline? Yes No Increase student’s goal Revise instructional program
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines For example…Look at Charles’ last 4 scores
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines Decision rules based on the trendlines: Question: What is the relation between the student’s trendline and the aimline? Steeper Flatter The same Increase the goal Revise program Make no changes
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 3: Analyze data: aimlines and trendlines For example…Look at Talia’s trend line in bright green
Part IV: Provide Practice Now it’s your turn!!! Complete the CBM Activity in your handout. Be prepared to discuss your results and decisions.
Part IV: In Summary… • Reviewed CBM in relation to RTI. • Defined key terms. • Reviewed elements of RTI and CBM. • Distinguished between CBM and CBA. • Compared and contrast current assessment practices. • Demonstrated data management techniques using Excel. • Provided practice to make decision rules and evaluate response to intervention.
The End Questions? Comments?