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  1. Achieving Differentiation Judith Rowinski and Richard Casey St. Bridget School November, 2012 In little steps
  2. Is this your classroom? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  3. This is your classroom! Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  4. How do you teach? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  5. Who responds well todirect instruction? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  6. Who is reading at leaston grade-level? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  7. Who prefers visual/artistic tasks? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  8. Who is highly productive during group work? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  9. Who fits the mold all the time? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  10. Who misses outall the time? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  11. We expect this. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  12. We get this. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  13. But we still teach to this. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  14. Pretty soon, many students begin to look like this. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  15. Ramifications? We should probably… STOP believing that homogeneous classes exist. STOP insisting that “equal” is always “fair.” STOP providing one-size-fits-all instruction. Differentiation allows us to… meet kids where they are; challenge kids with work that is a little too hard; provide appropriate “next step” opportunities. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  16. DI- What, Why and How? UNDERSTAND THAT: Differentiation is a “way of being” in the classroom and is fostered by a growth mindset. Various strategies can be used to successfully respond to learner needs in pursuit of targeted learning goals Flexible use of time, materials and grouping are hallmarks of a DI classroom which provide for the diverse needs of students. In a DI classroom, students and teachers collaborate to create a positive, supportive learning environment. BE ABLE TO DO: Reviewstrategiesthat support differentiation Develop specific practices that would be necessary to successful management of a differentiated classroom Setgoals for implementing differentiation Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  17. SO……… WHY DO WE DO THIS?????? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  18. THE CRUX OF THE PROBLEM . . . Meta-analyses and best-evidence synthesesof literally thousands of studies on effective teaching and classroom instruction point to the overriding importance of just three factors in explaining student achievement: Motivation to learn and high expectations Time on task and opportunity to learn Focused teaching Breakthrough (2006) by Fullan, Hill, Crevola - Joint Publication by Corwin, Sage, and Sage Pub.India • p. 35 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  19. And……. “Our Faith tells us that we should treat everyone with equal respect and dignity, no matter their abilities. This includes our students.” - Judith Rowinski Differentiated Instruction is the embodiment of this. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  20. Differentiated Instruction In Action Scenario #1 In Mrs. Walker's first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two "choice-boards" in the classrooms one called "Teacher Choice" and one called "Student Choice." Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of 8-12 "pockets" on the student choice board. Those offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language in which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue row). Often she also "Staggers" center work so that some students work at centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  21. Scenario #2Miss Justin works with her English 7 students in a variety of ways to tap into their interests, readiness levels, and learning profiles. Based on pretesting, she assigns students to different vocabulary studies, super sentences, and spelling lists. In writing, students often select topics of interest to them for particular writing assignments. For each writing form (e.g., essay, letter to the editor, etc.) there are certain “criteria for success” required of all students. In addition, students learn to pinpoint personal goals and base student-generated criteria upon those goals—Miss Justin generally adds a couple of criteria to each students’ general and personal list for major assignments. In literature, students often select novels, dramas, or short stories of interest to them to accompany whole-class pieces—thus enabling common focus with personalized “side explorations.” Further, products can often be produced alone or in student-selected groups of specified size and offer options for expression of student learning, as well as guidance for how to ensure top quality production. Miss Justin finds Group Investigation appropriate for high level study of student-generated topics, and Teams, Games & Tournaments to be useful for study of vocabulary, basic literature information, grammar constructs and other straightforward data requiring student mastery. Differentiated Instruction In Action Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  22. Oh My Goodness Don’t we have enough on our plate? This is too overwhelming! How can I be expected to do this all of the time for EVERY student? Where do I even start? WHY?!!!!! RELAX!!!!! YOU CAN DO THIS!!!!
  23. This looks like a LOT of prep and…. IT IS!!! However it does NOT have to be done over night or even over a month. It SHOULD not be done over night! Think about the quality of things that are “slapped together”. Tried and true Built up over time…..baby steps
  24. Think about those assignments or units that students LOVE and…. START FROM THERE Keep it simple and small at first… One lesson per week One unit per marking period As your comfort level increases THEN add more and build upon YOUR successes. The more you do….the easier it gets!
  25. Most people must engage in a behavior before they accept that it is beneficial; then they see the results, and then they believe it is the right thing to do. (The goal is understanding leading to and understanding through action!) Reeves, D. (2009). Leading change in your school: How to conquer myths, build commitment, and get results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, p. 44. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  26. Differentiation is NOT a set of strategies… It’s a way of thinking about teaching & learning Strategies are tools to accomplish the goals of DI. They are no more differentiation than a hammer and a saw are the house they help to build. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  27. At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  28. Differentiation is a teacher’s proactive response to learner needs shaped by mindset and guided by general principles of differentiation Building Community Quality Curriculum Teaching Up Respectful Tasks Ongoing Assessment Flexible Grouping Flexible Management Teachers can differentiate through ContentThe information and ideas students need to grapple with in order to reach the learning goals Process How students take in and make sense of the content Product How students show what they know, understand and can do Affect/ Environment The climate or tone of the classroom according to student’s Readiness Relative standing to the learning goals Interest Passions, affinities, kinships that motivate learning Learning Profile Preferred approaches to learning, intelligence preferences, gender and culture Through a variety of instructional strategies such as RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts….Menus……Tiered Assignments… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Projects…Intelligence Preferences…..Orbitals….Expression Options……Varied Homework…..Small Group Instruction……Complex Instruction…WebQuests & Web Inquiry…etc. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  29. However we conceive it, every lesson plan should be, at its heart, a motivational plan. Young learners are motivated and engaged by a variety of conditions. Among those are: novelty cultural significance personal relevance or passion emotional connection product focus choice the potential to make a contribution or link with something greater than self Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Tomlinson • 2003 • Fulfilling The Promise...
  30. Respectful Tasks Equally interesting, appealing, engaging Focused on the same essential understandings & skills Requires all students to work at high levels of thinking (to apply, argue, defend, synthesize, transform, look at multiple perspectives, associate with, etc.) Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  31. Planet MI Task Beware of Twinky DI Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  32. Language Arts Lessons Lessons are created and presented with clear objectives during whole group instruction. Lessons are brought to the class in a cross curricular fashion. Lessons presented touch upon all learning styles through Smart Board technology as well as through concrete materials such as construction, crayons, and glue, and Music with movement. The following are examples of lessons I have presented in previous classes as well as this year thus far.
  33. Lesson plans 2012 Standard- the child will be provided with opportunities to use different forms of writing such as drawing, letter-like forms, invented spelling Obj.- Students will practice prewriting skills mat. Materials- Pre Writing skills mat Proc.- Students will practice shapes and lines that are used in the formation of letters. A special mat ( sheet) will be given to groups of 4. Assessment: Pre writing mat. Standard- the child will be provided with opportunities to use different forms of writing such as drawing, letter-like forms, invented spelling Obj.- Students will practice writing the letter F Materials- Paper, pencil Proc.- Students will gather in groups of three during center time to write and draw about the letter F Assessment: Journal page
  34. Lesson Plans 2010-2011 Standard- the child will be provided with opportunities to use different forms of writing such as drawing, letter-like forms, invented spelling Obj.- Students will painting J using watercolors. Materials- Paper, watercolors Proc.- Students will gather and create J using watercolors. Assessment: Water color sheets Standard- the child will be provided with opportunities to use different forms of writing such as drawing, letter-like forms, invented spelling Obj.- Students will create wooden E’s Materials- small craft sticks, glue, glitter Proc.- Students will each receive 4 small craft sticks. With the glue I will model how to put them together to create the letter E. Students may then glitters glue their E’s. Assessment: Active participation and letter E completion.
  35. Whole group work
  36. Instructional Strategies that Support Differentiated Instruction

    Marcia B. Imbeau Associate Professor University of Arkansas mimbeau@uark.edu Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  37. Eight Choices Learning Centers – pgs. 23-31 Cubing – pgs. 31-34 RAFT – pgs. 34-46 Graphic Organizers – pgs. 46-50 Complex Instruction – pgs. 50-54 Think DOTS – pgs. 54-60 Learning Contracts – pgs. 60-64 Web Quests – pgs. 64-66 Jigsaw Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  38. ISBN #0-87120-812-1 Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom by Carol Ann Tomlinson

    Learning Centers

    Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  39. CENTERS A LEARNING CENTER is a classroom area that contains a collection of activities or materials designed to teach, reinforce, or extend a particular skill or concept. AN INTEREST CENTER is designed to motivate student’s exploration of topics in which they have a particular interest. CENTERS SHOULD: Focus on important learning goals Contain materials that promote individual students’ growth Use materials and activities addressing wide range of readiness, interests, and learning profiles Include activities that vary from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, structured to open-ended Provide clear directions for students Offer instructions about how a student may get help Include instructions for what to do upon completion Use a record keeping system to monitor productivity and quality Include a record keeping system to monitor productivity and quality Include a plan for on going assessment of student growth Should be adjusted based on such assessment Most centers are typically teacher constructed, although students should be encouraged to participate in the design of what and how something should be studied. From The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, Carol Tomlinson, ASCD • 1999 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  40. CENTERS A learning center is a classroom area that contains a collection of activities or materials designed to teach, reinforce, or extend a particular skill or concept. An interest center is designed to motivate students’ exploration of topics in which they have a particular interest. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  41. Differentiated Instruction In Action Learning Centers In Mrs. Walker's first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two "choice-boards" in the classrooms one called "Teacher Choice" and one called "Student Choice." Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of 8-12 "pockets" on the student choice board. Those offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language in which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue row). Often she also "Staggers" center work so that some students work at centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  42. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning Snapshots from Two Primary Classrooms For a part of each day in Mrs. Jasper’s 1st grade class, students rotate among learning centers. Mrs. Jasper has worked hard for several years to provide a variety of learning centers related to several subject areas. All students go to all learning centers because Mrs. Jasper says they feel it’s unfair if they don’t all do the same thing. Students enjoy the movement and the independence the learning centers provide. Many times, Isabel breezes through the center work. Just as frequently, Jaime is confused about how to do the work. Mrs. Jasper tries to help Jaime as often as she can, but she doesn’t worry so much about Isabel because her skills are well beyond those expected of a 1st grader. Today, all students in Mrs. Jasper’s class will work in a learning center on compound words. From a list of 10 compound words, they will select and illustrate 5. Later, Mrs. Jasper will ask for volunteers to show their illustrations. She will do this until the students share illustrations for all 10 words. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  43. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning Down the hall, Ms. Cunningham also uses learning centers in her 1st grade classroom. She, too, has invested considerable time in developing interesting centers on a variety of subjects. Ms. Cunningham’s centers, however, draw upon some of the principles of differentiated classrooms. Sometimes all students work in a particular learning center if it introduces an idea or skill new to everyone. More often, Ms. Cunningham assigns students to a specific learning center, based on her continually developing sense of their individual readiness. Today, her students will also work at a learning center on compound words. Student’s names are listed at the center; one of four colors is beside each name. Each student works with the folder that matches the color beside his or her name. For example, Sam has the color red next to his name. Using the materials in the red folder, Sam must decide the correct order of pairs of words to make familiar compound words. He also will make a poster that illustrates each simple word and the new compound word they form. Using materials in the blue folder, Jenna will look around the classroom Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  44. Making Matches Count: A Look at Student Learning and in bookstofind examples of compound words. She will write them out and illustrate them in a booklet. Using materials in the purple folder, Tijuana will write a poem or a story that uses compound words she generates and that make the story or poem interesting. She then can illustrate the compound words to make the story or poem interesting to look at as well as read. In the green folder, Dillon will find a story the teacher has written. It contains correct and incorrect compound words. Dillon will be a word detective, looking for “villains” and “good-guys” among the compound words. He will create a chart to list the good guys (correct compound words) and the villains (incorrect compound words) in the story. He will illustrate the good guys and list the villains as they are in the story, and then write them correctly. Tomorrow during circle time, all students may share what they did with their compound words. As students listen, they are encouraged to say the thing they like best about each presenter’s work. Ms. Cunningham also will call on a few students who may be reticent to volunteer, asking them if they’d be willing to share what they did at the center (Tomlinson, 1999, pp.3-4). Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  45. Creative Cubing Center Back by popular demand, your favorite center has returned…… That’s right! It’s time to CUBE! Roll your cube and follow the directions given. You DO NOT get to reroll, unless you have already completed that task. You are to complete at least three of the six tasks. Please be sure to follow directions accurately. Use details and precise words. Attach activities together with a paper clip and keep in the pocket of your center folder. Have a wonderful time!!!! Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  46. Name ____________________ Month _______________Learning Centers Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  47. Guided-Reading Schedule Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  48. Interest Centers Shark Center: Activities at this center support students’ research and writing skills, including reading nonfiction books to learn about various types of sharks and answering questions about them, distinguishing between fact and fiction, comparing shark eyes and human eyes, and writing a persuasive paragraph about sharks. Bat Center: Activities at this center support reading, math, and writing skills, including reading a fiction book on bats; predicting and writing about the beginning, middle, and end of the story; doing two-digit subtraction without regrouping; research facts; completing a crossword puzzle using bat facts; creating a poem; writing a story; and writing a letter to a friend telling why bats are important. Spider Center: Activities at this center support math, research, and reading skills, including geoboard and pattern block tasks; reading books about various types of spiders; and several comprehension, inference, and prediction activities. Reading Box: Activities in this center reinforce comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency in language arts. Students select book of interest to them and, after reading, go to the computer to take an accelerated reader test. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  49. Shark Center My hook for this interest center is a large poster of a shark showing those beautiful teeth. (It seems that every child is interested in the ocean life.) Each activity assignment below is written on a shark shape that is stapled around the poster. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  50. Shark Center Make your shark hat and wear it while your work in the shark center. Find out what a baby shark is called. Get a shark shape and write your answer on your shark. The shark shape is found in folder 2. Don’t forget to use the books on the center table to help you. Sharks have gills. Get a sheet of story paper. Draw pictures of the gills. Explain how the gills work. Don’t forget to use the books on the center table to help you. Get on large shark shape and five smaller shark shapes. On the large shark, write the word “shark.” Write the name of a different type of shark on each smaller shark. On the back of each shark, write a fact about the shark listed on the front. Create a mobile of your sharks. Materials that you need are located in folder 4. Complete the activity Fishy Facts and Sizing Up Sharks. (This activity deals with identifying facts and opinions about sharks and making a bar graph about the lengths of various sharks.) Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  51. 6. Pretend you have discovered a new kind of shark. Get a sheet of story paper. Draw your new shark. Write a paragraph to describe your shark. Be sure to include length, color, and other characteristics. Get a sheet of paper. List five good things about sharks. Be sure to use the books at your center to help you. Compare a shark’s eye and a human’s eye. Draw a picture of a shark’s eye and a human’s eye. Label your pictures and explain how the eyes are different or alike. Use some the of materials that are available and write five facts about sharks. Put these facts on index cards – one fact on each card. Pretend you are a shark. You do not like the bad feelings people have about you. Write a paragraph and give reasons for your bad behavior. Try to convince us that you are not such a “bad guy.” Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  52. Cubing Activities

    Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  53. Cubing Connect It Illustrate It Describe ItLook at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind). Compare ItWhat is it similar to? What is it different from? Associate ItWhat does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject. Analyze ItTell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your imagination. Apply ItTell what you can do with it. How can it be used? Argue for It or Against ItTake a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly, anywhere in between. Change It Evaluate It Solve It Rearrange It Question It Satirize It Cartoon It Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  54. Example diagram sketch question storyboard timeline explain Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  55. Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics? First Step: (use one of the cubes) Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit. Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions. Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. Keep one question opinion based-no right or wrong. Second Step: (use other cubes) Use the first cube as your “average” cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level. Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level, don’t water down or make too busy! Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing. Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell, adjust slightly. Third Step: Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels. Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions. Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes? Places to get questions: Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated. Creating a Cubing Exercise Compare one of the story characters to yourself. How are you alike and how are you different? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  56. Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________ Make a body sculpture to show__________________ Create a dance to show_______________________ Do a mime to help us understand_________________ Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________ Build/construct a representation of________________ Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________ Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________ Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  57. Ideas for Cubing in Math… Describe how you would solve_____________ Analyze how this problem helps us use mathematical thinking and problem solving. Compare this problem to one on p._____ Contrast it too. Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular person) could apply this kind of problem to their work or life. Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in the problem. Give a rule for what that change does. Create an interesting and challenging word problem from the number problem. (Show us how to solve it too) Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem. Interpret the visual so we understand. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  58. The Cube First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather. Draw it Associate it Divide your paper into 4 sections. Choose one type of weather. Label each section with a season and Create a web with this weather in the draw what the playground might look like. Center. Write words in the bubble connecting to the center that describe Compare it how you feel when you see it. Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram to compare them. Describe it Work with a partner. Draw a card from the jar. Explain it Describe the weather type on the card Talk with a partner about your favorite so your partner can guess. type of weather. Analyze it Work with a partner. Read a book about rain. Talk about why we need rain. Jessica Ramsey/2004Adapted slightly from: http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cubing Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  59. Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Compare your favorite picture in the story to a similar activity in your life. You may use words and/or pictures. Describe your favorite picture in the Story Family Pictures. Tell why you picked that one. List words that describe your feelings about the Mexican as you look at each picture in the story. Using a Venn Diagram, chart your favorite things and compare them to the favorite things you found in the story. Find common areas that you and the story share. Justify why it is important to meet people who speak a different language and have a different culture. Analyze the favorite things in the story by understanding why these might be traditions in the culture. If you were a researcher asked about the important things in the Mexican culture, what would you say? Red Cube Using Family Pictures by Carmen Lomas Garza Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  60. Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska Compare, using the compare and contrast graphic organizer and look at areas of food, shelter, traditions, family life, and recreational activities. Describe the Mexican culture using at least three sentences with three describing words in each sentence. Choreograph a dance or mime to represent the three main ideas that you learned about the Mexican culture. Find and critique another story at the reading center. Compare it to Family Pictures and discuss what elements you liked and did not like of either story. Pretend that you are a child from Mexico. Tell me about your day. What would your chores be? What would you eat? How would you spend your free time? Tell me why? Create your own family album by drawing at least five special activities your family shares. Orange Cube Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  61. Basic Cube Draw Charlotte as you think she looks. Use a Venn diagram and compare Charlotte and Fern. Use a comic strip to tell what happened in this chapter. Shut your eyes and describe the barn. Jot down your ideas. Predict what will happen in the next chapter using symbols. In your opinion, why is Charlotte a good friend? Abstract Cube Use a graphics program on the computer and create a character web for Wilbur. Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Wilbur and Charlotte. Draw the farm and label the items, people, and buildings. Use a storyboard to show the progress of the plot to this point. What is the message that you think the writer wants people to remember? Draw a symbol that illustrates your ideas. When you think of the title, do you agree or disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why not? Cubing with Charlotte’s Web Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  62. RAFT

    Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  63. RAFTAssignments What is it? Role Audience Format Topic How might I use it? Examples . . . Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  64. A RAFT is… … an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum … a way to encourage students to… …assume a role …consider their audience, while …examine a topic from their chosen perspective, and …writing in a particular format All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  65. RAFTs can… Be differentiated in a variety of ways: readiness level, learning profile, and/or student interest Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank row for that option Be used as introductory “hooks” into a unit of study Keep one column consistent while varying the other columns in the RAFT grid Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  66. Sample RAFT Strips Language Arts Science History Math Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
  67. Sample RAFT Strips Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  68. RAFT Strips, cont’d Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  69. Analyzing a RAFT lesson What are the learning goals for this lesson? Are they built into every choice? How is this RAFT being differentiated? Is there a wide range of format choices in order to appeal to LEARNING STYLES? Is there a range of difficulty in the roles? or a range of difficulty in the formats? or a range of difficulty in the topic responses? READINESS Are the roles, or formats, or topics meant to appeal to a variety of INTERESTS? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  70. Possible Formats to use in RAFTs to Differentiate by Lrng Modality Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  71. How you might assign RAFTs Cut the “strips” apart and hand out to students; or Give only two choices per student, and make both choices have formats fit with that student’s learning modality Give only two choices per student, and make both choices fit skill/knowledge level of the student’s readiness; or Allow students to choose from a menu of possible roles, or possible formats Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  72. RAFT Activities Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  73. 5th Grade Math RAFT Assignment: Parts of a Whole Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  74. READINESS DIFFERENTIATION: WRITING RAFT The teacher will assign sets of choices to students based on pre-assessed skill levels in sequencing and writing: Grade level or Advanced level. Within a skill level, students will still have some learning style or interest-based choices through the format options. Levels would NOT be seen by the students. Know: sequence; pace Understand: Seeing events in a logical order helps us better understand them. Do: Place items in order of occurrence; write with accuracy & completeness Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  75. Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T. (Page 1) This RAFT is designed for use by students when they have finished reading the novel, Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain. The RAFT synthesizes the unit’s exploration of characterization and allows students to “step into the skin” of one of the supporting characters to get a look at the protagonist from his/her perspective. A final jigsaw activity allows students to view Tom form multiple perspectives in order to reinforce the unit’s essential understandings (students share their RAFTs in mixed groups and complete a synthesis writing piece in which they draw conclusions about Tom based on all perspectives aired in the group). Raft Learning Goals Students should KNOW… The definition of characterization The six supporting characters’ relationships with Tom Sawyer Students should UNDERSTAND that… Individuals have their own unique perspectives determined by their experiences and relationships. In order to gain a true understanding of a person or event, multiple perspectives must be considered. Students should BE ABLE TO… Assume the voice of a supporting character Characterize Tom Sawyer using the methods discussed in class Draw conclusions synthesizing multiple and varied perspectives Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  76. Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.(Page 2) Differentiation: This RAFT is differentiated according to readiness and interest. Interests: Each student has three options from which to choose, so he/she can select a “strip” that appeals to them in some way (affinity with a character, interest/talent in the format’s expression, interest in the topic, etc.) Readiness: The first three strips should be given to more advanced students, as these three options are more conceptual. The roles and topics represent less accessible points of view and are designed for student who are ready to tackle the novel at a more abstract level and/or The formats are designed for students who are reading and writing on or above grade level (and are thus able to handle more complex modes of expression). The second three “strips” offer options that are simpler and more straightforward. The roles and topics represent more accessible views and are designed for students who understand the novel at a more basic level, and/or The formats are accessible for students who are struggling readers/writers. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  77. Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T. p. 3 Select one of the following prompts. The “Role” refers to the character’s perspective that you will assume. The “Audience” refers to whom that character will be addressing his/her opinion; The “Format” refers to the form in which the opinion will be expressed; The “Topic” is just that - your topic! Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue, and clear it with your teacher before you begin working. Use your text to help you. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Authors: Kristina Doubet, Marla Capper, and Christie Reed - 2003
  78. Ways to differentiate a RAFT by Readiness:(teacher will assign a RAFT or choices of RAFTs based on students’ writing, reading, or performance levels) Roles/Audience – Well-known people or characters to lesser-known Basic essential items (vocabulary, inventions, elements, etc.) to more esoteric items Easier to understand point-of-view to more intangible perspective Formats – (while offering choices to students) Shorter to longer (in prep, in process, or in presentation) More familiar to more unfamiliar formats Single step to multiple steps Topics – Easier to interpret to more sophisticated Concrete & literal response to more abstract response More structured to more open-ended Small leap in insight & application to larger leap Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  79. RAFT AssignmentsGrade 10 English Know: Voice, Tone, Style Understand: Every writer has a voice Voice is shaped by life experiences and reflects the writer Voice shapes expression Voice affects communication Voice and style are related Be Able to Do: Describe a writers voice and style Mimic a writer’s voice and style Create a piece of writing that reflects a writer’s voice and style Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  80. RAFT Assignment Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Candy Krueger Timberline High School Boise, ID
  81. RAFT Planning Sheet Know Understand Do How to Differentiate: Tiered? (See Equalizer) Profile? (Differentiate Format) Interest? (Keep options equivalent in learning) Other? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  82. Graphic Organizers

    Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  83. Graphic Organizers How do they address the diverse needs of students? Under what conditions might they best be used Examples…. Suggestions… Resources [www.graphicorganizers.com] Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  84. Double Cell Diagram Two items linked by characteristics or attributes. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  85. Venn Diagram Expanded Three items linked by characteristics or attributes Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  86. Venn Diagram (a visual display of similarities & differences) GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
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  88. Used to show the interaction of a complex event or complex phenomenon Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
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  91. defining the components of the problem and attempted solutions Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  92. Used to describe the stages of something, the steps in a linear procedure, a sequence of events or the goals, actions, and outcomes of a historical figure or character in a novel Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  93. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  94. A graphic organizer forms a powerful visual picture of information and allows the mind to see patterns and relationships. Graphic Organizers http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2grap.htm http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.htm Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  95. Graphic Organizers Download graphic organizers and keep them in a file for student use. Graphic organizers can be extended to make them more complex. On this graphic organizer have some students justify their selections and provide evidence of how these events have shaped our lives today. http://webcenter.netscape.teachervision.com/ Ocean Beach Elementary School http://www2.sandi.net/ocean/go.html Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  96. ThinkDots 

    An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by Readiness, Interest or Learning Style Kay Brimijoin, 1999 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  97. ThinkDOTs After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar with the ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity for students to construct meaning for themselves about the concept they are studying. The instructor first defines readiness levels, interests or learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment. Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an activity sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then completes the activity on the activity sheet. Materials: 1.8 ½ x 11 inch paper 2.Hole punch 3.Metal or plastic rings 4.Dice 5. Scissors 6. Markers or dots 7. Laminating materials Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  98. ThinkDOTs pg. 2 Construction: 1.   For each readiness level, six activities should be created. 2.On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done easily on the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a template), the activities should be written or typed in each section. 3.On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the page. 4.The pages should be laminated for durability. 5.Then each page should be cut into the six sections. 6.Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity card. 7.Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together (you can get 100 metal rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for $9.00) 8.Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and management. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  99. ThinkDOTs pg. 3 Suggestions: 1.Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles. 2.Have students work in pairs. 3.Let students choose which activities – for example: roll the die and choose any three; create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days. 4.After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesize  Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  100. ThinkDOTs pg. 4 Application: 1.Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into deeper exploration of a concept. 2.Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before assessment. 3.Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  101. Space Think DOTS l l l l l ThinkDOTS were used as a final assessment and to complete research after a full unit of study about space. Students worked in groups of 2-4 over two plus weeks to complete ThinkDOTS tasks and then presented what they had learned to the school and parents. KNOW: Key vocabulary - astronomer, atmosphere, axis, constellation, gravity, moon, orbit, phase, planet, revolution, rotation, solar, system, star (X Factor, crater, eclipse, flare, galaxy, meteorite, nebula, sunspot) Components of the solar system Physical characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and Earth Four seasons and their characteristics Objects that move in the sky Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas 1
  102. UNDERSTAND: The parts of the solar system influence one another and appear to be a unified whole. The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth have different physical characteristics and regular movements that result in daily, monthly, and yearly patterns. Scientific investigation of the solar system has an impact on human activity and the environment and is is a result of the contribution of many people. l l l l l DO: Identify the solar system and the planets in relationship to the sun Describe and compare the physical-characteristics of the Sun, Moon, and Earth Identify objects that move in the sky Describe patterns of change visible in the sky over time Observe and record phases of the moon, positions of constellations Identify the seasons and their characteristics Distinguish between revolution and rotation and demonstrate the difference Use a variety of resources, including the internet, to complete research Work cooperatively in a group Plan, design, conduct, and report on the conclusions of basic experiments Construct models to illustrate concepts, compare those models to what they represent Set goals and evaluate progress. Organize and present information Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas 2 Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4th Grades • Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, AZ
  103. Space ThinkDOTS (1) l l l l Illustrate the key vocabulary for our space study. Write the word under each picture. Be sure to check your spelling. Build a model of the solar system and label its parts. Show why it is a system. l l l l l l l Plan a skit that will show you understand the characteristic of the four seasons and when they happen. Be ready to answer questions from the audience. Create a mobile to show the 4 major phases of the moon. Be sure to put them in the order in which they occur. l l l l l l l l l l l Use words, pictures, and color to complete attribute webs for the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. List the similarities and differences you find. You are an astronomer and have discovered another planet in our solar system. Describe the planet’s location and attributes. Draw a picture and name your planet. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas 3 Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4th Grades • Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona
  104. Space ThinkDOTS (2) l l l l l Create an illustrated glossary for a book about how the objects in our solar system move in space and are related to one another. Use the key vocabulary from our space study. Be sure to check your spelling. Draw and label a map of our solar system to scale. Describe why it is considered a system. l l l l l l l Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. Prove why we have seasons. Create a way to show us what would happen without the rotation and revolution of the Earth. l l l l l l l l l l l You are from another galaxy going to explore the solar system’s Sun, Earth, and Moon. What will you take with you? What will you find there? What useful information will you take back to your galaxy? Share your findings with the earthlings in our class. You are an astronomer and have discovered another space system. Find a way to tell us all about it and what makes it a system. Multi-age Classrooms: 3rd & 4th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas 4
  105. Space ThinkDOTS(3) l l l l l l Develop a way to categorize the planets in our solar system and their relationship to the sun. Why is it considered to be a system? If you were going to teach a unit on space, what key vocabulary would you want your students to under- stand? List the words, their meanings, and how youwould teach each one. l l l l l l l Demonstrate that you know all the phases of the moon and why they occur. Compare and contrast the movement in space that causes day and night to the movement that creates the seasons. l l l l l l l l l l l You are from another galaxy going to explore the solar system’s Sun, Earth, and Moon. What will you take with you? What will you find there? What useful information will you take back to your galaxy? Share your findings with the earthlings in our class. If you were an astronomer, predict what your job would be like during the next 10 years. What might you discover?. Multi-age Classroom: 3rd & 4th Grades Judy Rex and Natanya Sabin, Scottsdale, Arizona Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas 5
  106. Think Dots:Grade 2 Math What students should know Count by fives Count up to sixty Tell time to the half hour 4 quarters is equal $1.00 3 fives makes fifteen There is quarter after and a quarter till Clock is divided into 4 parts and is similar to 4 quarters equaling $1.00 What students should understand Time helps people plan their lives better. Time helps people communicate. What students should be able to do Tell time to the quarter hour Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  107. Think Dots:Grade 2 Math Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock. Think Dots Version 1: Time The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Dawn LoCassale
  108. Think Dots:Grade 2 Math Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using analog and digital clock. Think Dots Version 2: Time The Think Dots could be used the following ways: Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Dawn LoCassale
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  111. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  112. ThinkDOTSActivities for Middle School Science LessonConcept:STRUCTURE Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  113. “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice Prejudice Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to those who practice them. Scapegoating Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this group and the treatments they received because of them. Articles Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify and minds of those responsible? Photography Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it. Genetics Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge. Stereotypes Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  114. “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice Prejudice Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not? Scapegoating What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated? Articles Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why? Photography Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think they are related? Genetics Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why. Stereotypes Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  115. “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept : Prejudice Prejudice Discuss the following statement: “Genocide can never be eliminated because it is deeply rooted in human nature.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence from your readings for your position. Scapegoating Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group. Articles Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why you did what you did, what would you say? Photography Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences? Genetic Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why? Stereotypes Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were the stereotypes your group had? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  116. Learning Contracts Contracts take a number of forms that begin with an agreement between student and teacher. The teacher grants certain freedoms and choices about how a student will complete tasks, and the student agrees to use the freedoms appropriately in designing and completing work according to specifications Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Strategy: Learning Contracts
  117. The Red Contract Key Skills: Graphing and Measuring Key Concepts: Relative Sizes Note to User: This is a Grade 3 math contract for students below grade level in these skills Find a friend and do Board math with Problems 1-10 on Page 71 of our Math book. Remember the “no more than 4” rule Come to the red math workshop on Monday and Tuesday Use the dominoes to solve the problems in your folder. Draw and then write your answers Work at the measuring and graphing center until you complete the red work Solve the great graph mystery in your math folder. Check Your answers with a buddy, then with the teacher Design an animal on graph paper using the creature blueprint. Get your graph approved. Then make a drawing, painting, or model of it Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  118. The Green Contract Key Skills: Graphing and Measuring Key Concepts: Relative Sizes Note to User:This is a Grade 3 math contract for students at or near grade level in these skills Come to the green math workshop on Monday and Friday Work the even numbered problems on page 71 of our math book. Use the export of the day to audit your work Complete the dominoes multiplication challenge. Record your answers on the wall chart Work at the measuring and graphing center until you complete the green work Solve the great graph mystery in your math folder. You can Work with someone on The green team if you’d Like. Check your answer With the teacher Design an animal on graph paper using the creature blueprint. Get your graph approved. Then make a drawing, painting, or model of it Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  119. The Blue Contract Key Skills: Graphing and Measuring Key Concepts: Relative Sizes Note to User: This is a Grade 3 math contract for students advanced in these skills Come to the blue math workshop on Tuesday or Thursday morning Complete the extension problems on graphing on page 74 of our math book. Use a peer monitor to audit your work. Do a timed test of Two-digit multiplication. Use a peer monitor Work at the measuring and graphing center until you complete the blue work Solve the graph mystery in your folder. You can work with someone on the blue team if you’d like. Find a place in our school to make a pattern graph of. Make the graph and create three problems for a classmate to solve. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  120. Learning Contract----Think Tac ToeAncient Civilizations – Grade 6 GEOGRAPHY IMPORTANT PEOPLE CONTRIBUTIONS Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Charles Kyle & Kathy Reed * Illinois
  121. A Planet “Show & Tell”(Each student must pick one square from each horizontal row and use the two together) Create One Pick a Way to Explain This differentiated review/synthesis task is based on Va. SOLS for science: 1.6 The student will investigate & understand the basic relationships between the Earth and sun, Including *the sun is the source of heat & light *night & day are caused by the rotation of the Earth. 1.7 The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change (light and temperature) to the activities & life processes of plants and animals. Based on Unit by Bette Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  122. Friendships Shape Up! Reading Contract Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by ____________________. Have fun! This contract belongs to _____________________. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas Brenda Spurgeon, 2nd Grade, Riverside Elementary School, Boise, ID
  123. Friendships Shape Up! Cont’d Make a poster advertising yourself as a good friend. Use words and pictures to help make people want to be your friend. Make sure your name is an important pare of the poster. Make a two sided circle-rama. Use it to tell people what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words and make sure your name is an important part of the display. Make a mobile that shows what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words to hang on your mobile. Write your name on the top of the mobile in beautiful letters. Get witha friend and make a puppet show about a problem and the solution in your book. Get with a friend & act out a problem and its solution from your book. Meet with me & tell me about a problem and its solution from the story. Then tell me about a problem you have had and how you solved it. Write a letter to one of the characters in your book. Tell them about a problem you have. Then have them write back with a possible solution to your problem. Draw a picture of a problem in the story. Then use words to tell about the problem and how the characters solved their problem. Think about another problem on of the characters in your book might have. Write a new story for the book about the problem and tell how it was solved. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  124. Writing BingoTry for one or more BINGOs this month. Remember, you must have a real reason for the writing experience! If you mail or email your product, get me to read it first and initial your box! Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
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  126. NEGOTIABLES (You must do at least one of these…) 1) Determine the approximate costs of the problem of one badly affected region and develop a graphic that shows total costs and what makes the costs (for example: Health costs, clean-up costs, lost revenues from land, etc.) 2) Develop a timeline of the evolution of the problem over the last 100 years, including significant dates, and factors that contributed to the change. Take the timeline into the future based on your current understanding of trends associated with the problem. OPTIONS (You may do one or more of these…) 1) Create a Gary Larson-type cartoon or an editorial cartoon that makes a commentary on the problem. 2) Prepare a fictionalized account, but based on scientific fact, of a person who lives in a badly affected area. Your goal is to put a human face on the problem. 3) Develop a 60-second public service announcement (taped) to raise audience awareness of the problem and introduce positive actions citizens might take to improve the prognosis for the future. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  127. Appetizers Something I can always be working on. These are assignments that will reinforce concepts. Vocabulary Words/Definitions Word Searches Idea Maps Matching Worksheets Label the Microorganism/Cell Main Course Required These labs must be completed and turned in for credit. Enormous E Focus on Scopes Pond Water Culture Your Choice Chapter 8 Test MicroorganismMenu Name:Class: Appetizers:Can always work on Soups/Salads:Homework Main Course:Required Desserts:Challenges Soups/Salads Homework Assignments All homework must be completed and turned in for a grade. Transparency #13 Transparency #16 Study Guide 8.1 Study Guide 8.2 Study Guide 8.3 Desserts Things I can do to challenge myself. These are not required unless you have been given specific instructions. Movie Notes Make a Slide Guess the Disease Write a Letter Microbe Mysteries http://www.microbeworld.org Created by Meri-Lyn StarkElementary Science Coordinator Park City School District Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  128. TIERED ASSIGNMENTS

    Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  129. IS differentiation according to readiness Uses groups based upon students’ readiness for a particular task Is driven by pre-assessment. Is NOT locking students into “ability boxes” because groups are flexible and vary according to the task Is NOT the only kind of differentiation, although it is foundational. Tiering Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  130. Tiered Assignments In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high levels of thought. Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their “Zones of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate challenge.” Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  131. Too Easy I get it right away… I already know how… This is a cinch… I’m sure to make an A… I’m coasting… I feel relaxed… I’m bored… No big effort necessary… What Zone Am I In? On Target I know some things… I have to think… I have to work… I have to persist… I hit some walls… I’m on my toes… I have to re-group… I feel challenged… Effort leads to success… Too Hard I don’t know where to start… I can’t figure it out… I’m spinning my wheels… I’m missing key skills… I feel frustrated… I feel angry This makes no sense… Effort doesn’t pay off… THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone… Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  132. 2nd Grade Tiered Lesson Pioneers Pioneer Group (Work alone or in groups of 2,3,4) Use books, pictures, and the CD-ROM to Figure out what a trading post was for. Make a list of things found in a trading post and how much they may have cost. Be sure to include some things we don’t have in our stores today. Figure out who used trading posts. Find out where goods for a trading post came from. Build or draw a trading post and a modern convenience store. Compare and contrast the trading post and convenience store on at least the four categories identified in questions 1a-1d. Be ready to share with the class what a trading post and convenience store tell us about how we are like and different from the pioneers. Examples are from Handout 10 ASCD Facilitator’s Guide for Differentiating Instruction Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  133. 2nd Grade Tiered Lesson Pioneers Trailblazer Group (Work alone or in groups of 2 or 3) Read Going West (stop at the bookmark). Also use the encyclopedia, CD-ROM and books in the exploration center to Learn about the size of a covered wagon and figure out how many people and supplies it would hold. Find out how covered wagons were built and how they work. Figure out the positives and negatives of going west in a covered wagon. Figure out how much a covered wagon might cost and why it cost so much –for example, costs for materials, labor, and horses. Learn what pioneers took in the covered wagons, what they left behind, and why. Build or draw a model of a covered ways used in pioneer days and station wagon or van used today. Compare and contrast the two vehicles on at least the five categories identified in questions 1a-1e. Be ready to share with the class what a covered wagon and a station wagon (or van) tell us about how we are like and different from the pioneers. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  134. 2nd Grade Tiered Lesson Pioneers Wagoneer Group (Work alone or in groups of 2 or 3) Use books and records in the exploration center, plus encyclopedias and the CD-ROM to learn about leisure and recreation during pioneer times. Select at least four categories from this list or add categories of your own (with teacher approval): songs, games, dances, literature, gatherings, contests, crafts. In each category you select, be ready to fully illustrate an example of “then” and a contrasting example from “now” to show the class how we are like and different from the pioneers in what we do for recreation (and why). Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  135. 2nd Grade Tiered Lesson Pioneers Adventurer Group (Work alone or in pairs) Use books in the exploration center, the article in the Medicine West folder, encyclopedias, and the CD-ROM to find out what the medical problems were during the westward movement and what the practice of medicine was like. Figure out important questions to ask and answer in order to compare and contrast health problems and the practice of medicine then and now. Get your categories and questions approved by the teacher. Figure out a way to help the class see how we are like and different from the pioneers in health issues and the practice of medicine. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  136. Complex Instruction Achieving Equity in the Classroom Complex Instruction evolved from over 20 years of research by Elizabeth Cohen, Rachel Lotan, and their colleagues at the Stanford School of Education. The goal of this instruction is to provide academic access and success for all students in heterogeneous classrooms. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  137. Complex Instructionhttp://cgi.stanford.edu/group/pci/cgi-bin/site.cgi Complex Instruction (CI) has three major components: 1) Multiple ability curricula are designed to foster the development of higher-order thinking skills through groupwork activities organized around a central concept or big idea. The tasks are open-ended, requiring students to work interdependently to solve problems. Most importantly, the tasks require a wide array of intellectual abilities so that students from diverse backgrounds and different levels of academic proficiency can make meaningful contributions to the group task. Research has documented significant achievement gains in classrooms using such curricula. 2) Using special instructional strategies, the teacher trains the students to use cooperative norms and specific roles to manage their own groups. The teacher is free to observe groups carefully, to provide specific feedback, and to treat status problems which cause unequal participation among group members. 3) To ensure equal access to learning, teachers learn to recognize and treat status problems. Sociological research demonstrates that in CI, the more that students talk and work together, the more they learn. However, students who are social isolates or students who are seen as lacking academic skills often fail to participate and thus learn less than they would if they were more active in the groups. In CI, teachers use status treatments to broaden students' perceptions of what it means to be smart, and to convince students that they each have important intellectual contributions to make to the multiple-ability task. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  138. Complex InstructionAs Interpreted by Carol Tomlinson,University of Virginia Materials and instructions must be in multiple languages so that all students have their language represented. Pictorial/visual representations are also helpful. Reading and writing are integrated into the task in ways which make them a means to accomplish a fascinating end. Multiple intelligences should be drawn upon in a real world way. Tasks must require many different talents in order to be completed adequately. Teachers move among groups, asking questions about student work and thought, probing decisions, and facilitating understanding. Teachers methodically engage in “assignment of status” (looking for student strengths, especially nontraditional areas), and pointing them out to the class with explanations of why the skills are important ones in the real world. Teachers delegate authority for learning increasing it over time as they support students in gaining skills needed to manage the authority well. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  139. Complex InstructionElements Students work together in small groups (heterogeneous in nature) at learning centers on a task which calls upon the skills of all students in the group. Groups change often so all students in a class work with all others in variety of contexts. Multilingual groups must include a bilingual student to serve as a bridge. Students are encouraged to speak in their own language in the group. Tasks must be open-ended. Tasks must be intrinsically interesting to the students. The tasks must be uncertain (fuzzy). The tasks must be challenging. Tasks must involve the use of real objects. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  140. A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English The task card reads: We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should: Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s going on with it and what it means. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  141. A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for Tenth Graders in English (cont’d.) Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month. Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you are working. As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  142. A Complex Instruction Task for Middle School U.S. History Background: The class is studying the pre-Civil War era. An emphasis is on change and the courage required for change. They are exploring change in economics, beliefs, views of government, and culture during this time. One book they are reading in common is Get On Board: The Story of the Underground Railroad by Jim Haskins. The Task: For six weeks, students work in groups of six on their Complex Instruction task as they do many other in-class tasks related to their topic and concepts. The teacher often relates class work and discussion to the CI task. Sometimes students will have all or part of a class period to work on the CI task. The CI task is often homework as well. The CI Instructions Your group must develop and write a scenario (probably at least 5 pages in length) that describes a time, place, and set of circumstances in which your CI task will be rooted. One or more slaves will try to flee to freedom. Who are they? What are their circumstances? Be sure to include location, time in history, living circumstances over an extended period, gender, age, family, and stories that help us experience their world and thought. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  143. Middle School U.S. History Each person in your group must take on a role. Here are your choices: A slave fleeing An abolitionist A Quaker A slave owner A freed slave A Native American Another role of your choice (clear it with the teacher) Everyone’s role must be rooted in your group scenario. Through research, reading and class, gather data about your role and one other role adopted by someone in your group. In the end, each role should be researched by 2 group members to provide greater insight and maximum data. You have primary responsibility for “your” role, but secondary responsibility to help someone else achieve a rich and accurate understanding of “their” role. Generate as many data sheets as you can about “your” own role and your secondary role. There’ll be times to share written work. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  144. Middle School U.S. History Create your own rich, historically defensible framework of your group scenario. Be sure to include detail that reflects: Political and economic events Culture of the person and times Culture of others involved in your scenario The Underground Railroad experience Relevant laws Tensions leading to the Civil War We’ll use a rubric so you’re sure how to do a high quality job. Be sure the underlying theme of your work reflects issues of courage and change. (Include fear, loss, gain, and resolve to act.) You will have several opportunities (with assigned roles) to take part in history circles with your group so you can learn from and help one another. A big point here is to give everyone a chance to see similar events through different eyes. Ultimately, you will need to be a part of either two or three depiction teams which literally “show” us the essence of what it was like to be a part of the unfolding scenario at a key point. You can negotiate with the teacher what your assignments will be. Among forms your depictions can take are: A speech A sermon An oral story A written story Paintings or drawings with narration cards Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  145. Middle School U.S. History Songs with narration A book chapter An interior monologue A series of letters A trial enactment An annotated and illustrated timeline A series of editorials from a specified newspaper A set of contrasting editorials from contrasting newspapers A format or your choice (clear this with your teacher) Whatever your depictions, they must include at least three perspectives on events – all of them accurate in historical detail and rich in insight. In the end, your group will exhibit for one or more groups who will respond to your work – as will at least one adult. There will be time in class to learn, ask questions, show ideas, get unstuck, and plan. If you have other ideas to make your work more interesting, let me know! Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  146. Big Idea of Differentiation: On-Going Assessment & Adjustment Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  147. The Common Sense of Differentiation Ensuring an environment that actively supports students in the work of learning, Absolute clarity about the learning destination, Persistently knowing where students are in relation to the destination all along the way, Adjusting teaching to make sure each student arrives at the destination (and, when possible, moves beyond it). Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  148. “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  149. WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS LEARNING PROFILE INTEREST Current Interests Potential Interests Talents/Passions Areas of Strength and Weakness Learning Preferences Self Awareness Content Knowledge Skills Concepts/Principles Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  150. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz. Write as much as you can. Definition Information Jazz Performers/ Composers Personal Experience Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  151. Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Table Tennis. Write as much as you can. Definition Details Table Tennis Rules Personal Experience Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  152. WORDS PICTURE FAMILY Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  153. Knowledge Rating Chart I’ve never heard of this before I’ve heard of this, but am not sure how it works I know about this and how to use it An example of pre-assessment of readiness _____ Direct object _____ Direct object pronoun _____ Indirect object _____ Indirect object pronoun _____ Object of a preposition _____ Adjective _____ Interrogative adjective Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  154. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  155. Exit Cards: Earth Science Name: Draw the orbit of the earth around the sun. Label your drawing. What causes the seasons? Why is it warmer in the summer than in the winter? Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  156. 3-2-1 Card Name: 3things I learned from the friction lab… 2questions I still have about friction… 1 thing way I see friction working in the world around me…. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  157. Windshield Check CLEAR – “I get it!” BUGS – “I get it for the most part, but I still have a few questions.” MUD – “I still don’t get it.” An example of informal on-going or formative assessment of readiness Or: Dip Stick—Full, Half Full, Need Oil Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas BACK
  158. Big Idea of Differentiation: Making Differentiation a Natural Part of the Flow of the Classroom (the common sense of differentiation) Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  159. Management Hints

    Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  160. Creating Routines in a Differentiated Classroom… Our Work Teams Making Differentiation the Fabric of the Classroom Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  161. Giving Directions for Groupwork If the whole class is doing the same activity then give the directions to the whole group. Do not give multiple task directions to the whole class. For small group work, tape directions so students can listen to them repeatedly. Use task cards to give directions to small groups. Give directions to a group member the day before. A general rule is that once the teacher has given directions the students can’t interrupt while he/she is working with a small group. Ask Me Visors Expert of the Day Keeper of the Book Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  162. Teacher Checklist for Group Work Students understand the task goals. Students understand what’s expected of individuals to make the group work well. The task matches the goals (leads students to what they should know, understand, and be able to do). Most kids should find the task interesting. The task requires an important contribution from each group The task is likely to be demanding of the group and its members. The task requires genuine collaboration to achieve shared understanding. The timelines are brisk (but not rigid). Individuals are accountable for their own understanding of all facets of the task. There’s a “way out” for students who are not succeeding with the group. There is opportunity for teacher or peer coaching and in-process quality checks. Students understand what to do when they complete their work at a high level of quality. Tomlinson • 2000 Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  163. Assigning Groups Clothes pins with student’s names to assign them to a particular task Color code students to certain groups/areas (a transparency with students names in color works well) Use pre-assigned groups Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  164. Handling Materials Assign jobs to different students (materials handler, table captain) As a teacher ask yourself, “Is this something I have to do myself, or can the students learn to do it?” Remember that you have to teach kids how to become responsible for their own things & the classroom as a whole. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  165. Transitions Directions for transitions need to be given with clarity & urgency. Time limit for transition Address the acceptable noise level Rehearsal Be a floater during transitions Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  166. Routines for Handling Paperwork Color-coded work folders Portfolios Baskets for each curricular area or class period Filing Cabinet The key to these organizational patterns is that the children have access to their own work and know how to file and/or find what they need to accomplish a task. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  167. Time Must be flexible in order to address every child’s readiness level Catch-up days/Design-A-Day Anchor Activities Independent Investigations Exploration Centers Applications for a Time Extension Flexible Deadlines Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  168. Anchor Activities A task to which a student automatically moves when an assigned task is finished, TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES: Important—related to key knowledge, understanding, and skill, Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest, learning preference, Allow Choice—students can select from a range of options Clear Routines and Expectations—students know what they are to do, how to do it, how to keep records, etc. Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the work as they move around the room. Students may turn in work for feedback. Students may get a grade for working effectively, but seldom for the work itself. The motivation is interest and/or improved achievement. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  169. Examples of Possible Anchor Activities Skills practice at the computer Reading from supplementary material Completing math applications Working on final products Free reading Journal writing Analyzing cases (or writing them) Vocabulary extension Learning about the people behind ideas Learning about key ideas at work in the world Independent Studies Orbitals Current events reading Designing or completing “virtual” science experiments Developing or completing relevant organizers An idea for an improvement, invention, innovation ETC. Generally, homework is not an acceptable anchor activity—and anchor activities are typically completed individually. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  170. Beginning Anchor Activities… Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class very carefully. Later, it can serve as a point of departure for other anchors. Explain the rationale. Let students know you intend the activities to be helpful and/or interesting to them. Help them understand why it’s important for them to work productively. Make sure directions are clear and accessible, materials readily available, and working conditions support success. Think about starting with one or two anchor options and expanding the options as students become proficient with the first ones. Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and analyze the way they are working with your students. Encourage your students to propose anchor options. Remember that anchor activities need to stem from and be part of building a positive community of learners. Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  171. Stick with these Four Questions—Persistently & Insistently Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  172. Start slowly. Lead your students—make them your partners. Plan the details carefully and at a pace that works for you. Rehearse and review. Be reflective--celebrate successes and learn from rough spots. Remember what you want to accomplish & why it matters! Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas
  173. “Why is differentiation worth my time? Because it makes me a much better teacher. I’m far more attuned to my students’ needs now and to making the class work for them.” Marikja Reilly, Science Teacher Colchester High School Colchester, Vermont Marcia Imbeau, Assoc. Professor, University of Arkansas