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Section 1 The World War I Years Section 2 Changes in Black Society Section 3 The Harlem Renaissance

Section 1 The World War I Years Section 2 Changes in Black Society Section 3 The Harlem Renaissance. A New Century and New Opportunities. Section 1: The World War I Years. Main Idea In the early 1900s imperialism in Africa and World War I affected people of African descent worldwide. .

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Section 1 The World War I Years Section 2 Changes in Black Society Section 3 The Harlem Renaissance

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  1. Section 1The World War I Years Section 2Changes in Black Society Section3The Harlem Renaissance A New Century and New Opportunities

  2. Section 1: The World War I Years Main Idea In the early 1900s imperialism in Africa and World War I affected people of African descent worldwide. • Reading Focus • How did people of African descent react to European imperialism in Africa in the late 1800s? • How did World War I begin? • What roles did African Americans play in World War I?

  3. Building Background As Americans were busy settling new territories in the West in the late 1800s, powerful European countries were expanding as well. Many countries rushed to establish colonies around the globe. This race for colonies would eventually play a part in the outbreak of one of the most devastating wars in history—World War I.

  4. For centuries Western nations controlled colonies around the world; practice of imperialism gave powerful nations control of weaker nations Ruling countries benefited economically Colonies supplied valuable raw materials—such as metals, cotton, and timber—for European factories Colonies served as a market for European goods Late 1800s and early 1900s saw new wave of imperialism Western nations sought out more colonies with Africa a chief target; European nations raced to gain access to natural resources Imperialism in Africa

  5. Belgium and the Congo • Belgium’s King Leopold II—the Congo Free State in Central Africa • Companies allowed to exploit region’s people; forced them to collect resources for export • Other nations colonized Africa as well • Other Western Nations • France controlled French West Africa • British held colonies in Egypt, Nigeria, and southern Africa • Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain also held African colonies • Responses to Takeover • 1914 only two African nations still independent • Black leaders held the first Pan-African Conference in 1900; people of African descent gathered to address issues facing blacks, including racism and imperialism • Pan-Africanism • W. E. B. Du Bois, a conference organizer, took up the idea of Pan-Africanism; people of African heritage should work together to achieve freedom and equality • Idea powerful influence for future black activists

  6. Reading Check Identify Cause and Effect What conditions led to the creation of the Pan-African movement? Answer(s): imperialism in Africa and racism against people of African descent

  7. World War I Begins In 1914 tensions between imperialist powers exploded into a war that came to involve all of the world’s Western powers. • The United States Enters the War • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia; within weeks a network of treaties and alliances pulled almost every country in Europe into the fighting • On one side Allied Powers of France, Great Britain, Italy, and Russia • Opposing them were the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire • The U.S. remained neutral, or chose not to take sides for three years; most Americans did not want a bloody overseas war • After German attacks on U.S. merchant ships and the deaths of American civilians, the United States joined the war on the Allied side

  8. The Call for Troops • Thousands of men volunteered for military service; as with the Civil War black men eager to serve their country were turned away • African Americans themselves were divided over the issue of serving • Some black leaders wondered why those denied full rights at home should defend freedom for others • Other black leaders, such as Robert S. Abbott, publisher of the Chicago Defender, and W. E. B. Du Bois, supported the war effort; urged African Americans to volunteer in spite of the discrimination faced at home • In May 1917 Congress passed the Selective Service Act • African American men allowed to serve their country in “the war to end all wars” • Black troops would face discrimination in the armed forces much like the discrimination they faced in civilian life

  9. Reading Check Analyze How did African American attitudes toward serving in World War I differ? Answer(s): Some believed that blacks should not defend a home country in which they were denied full rights. Others thought that blacks should fight for democracy.

  10. African Americans in World War I As Du Bois argued, “Out of the war will rise…an American Negro, with the right to vote, and the right to work, and the right to live without insult.” • Blacks Serve in the War • Once U.S. entered the war, the African American troops already in the armed forces called to duty • 20,000 black troops in the U.S. Army and National Guard units; by war’s end 370,000 had served • All-black divisions commanded by white officers; received little or no training with weapons • Worry that African Americans who could use guns posed a threat • Combat Roles • Only 40,000 blacks saw action on the battlefield • Eugene Jacques Bullard, the world’s first black fighter pilot • Joined the French Foreign Legion in 1914; flew on 20 missions with French air force • U.S. Army Air Service rejected him when he sought to fly for his native country—black pilots were not welcome

  11. When U.S. entered World War I in 1917, only three African American commissioned officers in the entire U.S. military As black troops joined the military, black leaders protested discrimination against black officers Black leaders argued that the government should not deny “the right of our best [Negro] men to lead troops of their race into battle” May 1917 the U.S. Army finally established a training camp in Iowa for black officers By war’s end, this camp commissioned more than 600 black officers; most assigned to black labor battalions behind the front Black Army Officers

  12. Black Troops in Combat • Two Combat Units • Only two African American units saw overseas combat—the 92nd and the 93rd infantry divisions • The 92nd arrived on the front lines in France in August 1918; saw heavy fighting against Germans • The 93rd’s most famous unit, the 369th Infantry, also known as the Harlem Hell Fighters • Spring of 1918, the unit assigned to serve with the French army; accustomed to fighting with black soldiers from France’s African colonies, French troops did not object to integrating their forces • Opportunity • The 369th fought bravely; became the first Allied unit to reach the Rhine River in Germany • Service came at a high cost—almost 1,500 Harlem Hell Fighters died in combat; 171 members of the 369th received the Legion of Honor, France’s highest award • Most highly honored African American soldiers in World War I were both members of the 369th—Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts • Both honored with the Croix de Guerre for their bravery

  13. Black Nurses • Before World War I, a group of black women organized the National Association of Colored Nurses; determined that African American nurses gain proper recognition and be accepted as professionals • In September 1918, a devastating worldwide flu epidemic broke out; needing nurses, the army sent 18 black nurses to hospitals in Ohio and Illinois • Nurses tended both black and white patients; earned high praise from those they worked with • After the War • Returning African American veterans received little recognition for their wartime sacrifices; the 369th Infantry honored in a war veterans parade, other areas largely ignored blacks’ contributions • Veterans refused to accept these insults quietly • After helping to fight for freedom overseas, many believed that earned the right for greater freedoms at home

  14. Reading Check Summarize What roles did African Americans play in the course of World War I? Answer(s): African American soldiers fought in combat, served as officers, and provided manual labor; black nurses served in the 1918 flu outbreak.

  15. Section 2: Changes in Black Society Main Idea The migration of African Americans to the North and the birth of black nationalism resulted in changes for black society. • Reading Focus • What led thousands of southern blacks to migrate to the North? • What events led up to the Red Summer of 1919? • How did black nationalism and social gains lead to changes in the United States?

  16. Building Background As the United States entered World War I in Europe, changes were taking place at home. Tired of years of discrimination and poverty in the South, thousands of African Americans began moving to the North in record numbers. This migration of people led to many changes in the United States.

  17. Demand for war equipment and supplies surged with war; northern factories booming, but work force fighting overseas Many northern businesses looked to the South for workers; African Americans from the South moved north in search of better lives Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Detroit held the promise of steady jobs African American newspapers such as the Chicago Defender played key role in encouraging black southerners to move north Black southerners hoped to escape the segregation, poverty, and racial violence they often faced in the South, where many had little choice but to work as sharecroppers or in low-paying jobs Economic troubles—during the war, farmers and laborers suffered from damaged crops, poor harvests, and a sharp drop in wages The Great Migration

  18. Effects of the Great Migration • Economic and social factors resulted in 330,000 black southerners moving north • This enormous movement of people from 1910 to 1920 became known as the Great Migration • Changes to Northern Cities • Key result rapid growth of many northern cities • Black Americans moved in record numbers to industrial cities in the North • St. Louis, Chicago, and Detroit experienced tremendous growth • Influence on Culture • Massive movement of people influenced northern culture • African Americans brought southern customs with them • Black musicians from the South introduced the blues to many northern cities • The Blues • Born in the Mississippi Delta and nurtured in New Orleans, the blues combines instrumental rhythms and expressive vocals to convey deep emotions, especially sadness or love • Blues musician W.C. Handy

  19. Reading Check Summarize How did the Great Migration lead to changes in the North? Answer(s): The arrival of African Americans in the North led to the growth of cities and the introduction of elements of southern culture.

  20. Red Summer of 1919 Racial tension in the United States grew more severe after the end of World War I, reaching a peak in 1919 when race riots broke out across the country. James Weldon Johnson named the bloody racial violence the Red Summer. • Racial Tensions Rise • Reasons—factory jobs war-related • Demand for products fell suddenly after war; workers lost their jobs • Little work available for returning American soldiers; competed with African Americans for scarce factory jobs • Resulting competition between black and white workers led to a sharp increase in tensions in many cities • Expectations • African American expectations changing • Many blacks felt they had earned greater freedom at home after helping fight for freedom overseas during the war • Some whites determined to resist any changes to the status quo • African Americans grew increasingly frustrated and angry

  21. Violence Breaks Out • In the South, some whites began to punish anyone who encouraged black people to move north or otherwise assert their independence; some cities levied heavy fees against recruiting agents • In other places, laws made it illegal to sell or distribute black publications such as the Chicago Defender or the NAACP’s magazine The Crisis, both of which encouraged black southerners to seek better lives in the North • A number of race riots broke out in the summer of 1919; 25 such riots were recorded

  22. Race Riots • Riots in Charleston, SC; Washington, D.C.; Knoxville, TN; Longview, TX; Elaine, AR; Omaha, NE; and Chicago, IL • Most of these race riots triggered by what could have been harmless events • Other riots had more intentional beginnings; Knoxville and Omaha riots both began when mobs tried to protect blacks accused of attacking white citizens • The Longview riot begun by white men who went to the black section of town to punish a schoolteacher who had written condemnation of recent lynchings for the Chicago Defender

  23. Reading Check Identify What led to the outbreak of race riots in 1919? Answer(s): an increase in racial tension caused by competition for jobs and resistance to change

  24. Black Nationalism and Social Gains Violence during the Red Summer did little to deter black Americans, who increased their efforts to end discrimination and win equal rights. • Marcus Garvey • Founder of the black nationalism movement • Black nationalismwas the belief that black people around the world should create their own societies, separate and distinct from white societies • Direct contrast to Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the NAACP, who believed in breaking down barriers between blacks and whites • Garvey feared that this goal threatened the racial purity of African Americans and that it discouraged the feelings of unity and strength he tried to foster in black communities worldwide • In 1914, Garvey founded an organization known as the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) with a goal of encouraging a return to Africa to build a new nation there • Its slogan was “Back to Africa”

  25. Independent Black Economy • Believing that respect and self-reliance would come from economic strength, Garvey wanted to build an independent black economy in the United States • Felt blacks should take pride in their African heritage; his newspaper, The Negro World, boasted of the accomplishments of people of African descent and of the glories of African culture • Message of self-reliance and black pride proved enormously popular, and the UNIA soon claimed some 2 million members • Garvey made many enemies; 1922 Garvey and other members of the UNIA indicted for mail fraud • Supporters felt charges politically motivated but Garvey convicted and imprisoned in 1925 • Released from jail in 1927; forced to leave the country • Without his leadership the UNIA soon declined

  26. New Labor Unions • 1910s—Benjamin Fletcher organized unions under the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW); included most of Philadelphia’s black dockworkers • In 1925—A. Philip Randolph lead the formation of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; the country’s first truly successful black labor union • Unionizing dangerous; Fletcher spent 10 years in jail for his unionizing efforts; a 1919 race riot started when whites attacked black farmers discussing plans to join a union • Victories Against Lynching • NAACP leaders believed in the need for a federal anti-lynching law • From 1901 to 1920, 16 anti-lynching bills had been introduced; in 1922 the House passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill • Despite support from the NAACP and President Warren G. Harding, the bill was again blocked in the Senate; reintroduced in 1923—no action taken • Debate over the Dyer Bill raised public outrage over lynchings

  27. Reading Check Analyze What were three ways in which African Americans worked to improve their lives in the 1910s and 1920s? Answer(s): black nationalism, the creation of labor unions, and the fight against lynching

  28. Section 3: The Harlem Renaissance Main Idea Expressions of black culture, including literature, music, and art, reached new heights during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s. • Reading Focus • Why was Harlem home to an outpouring of African American cultural expression? • Who were some key writers and poets of the Harlem Renaissance? • What roles did black performers and musicians play in the Harlem Renaissance?

  29. Building Background During the Great Migration, New York City was a primary destination for many black migrants to the North. There, thousands of African Americans hoped to build better lives for themselves. In one New York neighborhood, black artists and intellectuals would begin a vibrant artistic and literary movement that would shape American culture.

  30. Thousands of African Americans flocked to New York City during the Great Migration Many migrants to New York settled in the neighborhood known as Harlem; located in the northern portion of Manhattan Island, Harlem a popular neighborhood for African Americans since end of 1800s After World War I, Harlem center of black social and cultural life and activism African Americans living in Harlem felt a strong sense of racial pride and identity Attracted talented African American artists, writers, thinkers, and musicians Community shared their experiences; encouraged greater creative heights Common theme resistance to white prejudice and a pride in African American culture and heritage Harlem home to the first branch of the NAACP and Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association Roots of the Harlem Renaissance

  31. W.E.B. Du Bois • Served as editor of NAACP’s The Crisis; magazine published in Harlem • Featured African American writing and poetry; • Helped promote racial pride and identity • National Urban League • Also helping promote racial pride National Urban League • Like the NAACP, the Urban League published a magazine • The magazine Opportunity highlighted black culture • Alain Locke • Notable figure in the development of African American culture in the early 1900s • Howard University philosophy professor; Locke encouraged black artists to connect to their African heritage • Harlem Renaissance • Locke pushed black authors to write about African American life • By 1917, emphasis on black culture led to the artistic and literary movement known as the Harlem Renaissance

  32. Reading Check Draw Conclusions Why do you think that Harlem was home to an African American cultural movement? Answer(s): because many African Americans lived in the area, including artists and intellectuals

  33. Black Writers and Poets The Harlem Renaissance dominated African American cultural life for two decades. Writers and poets expressed new ideas about life and culture. • A Burst of Creativity • Works of white writers focusing on the black experience in the U.S. served to inspire African American writers and poets who burst onto the U.S. cultural scene during the Harlem Renaissance • Works of talented black writers promoted through leading African American magazines, such as The Crisis and Opportunity • National Urban League hosting an annual literary contest • The contest helped propel black writers into the mainstream of American literature. • Common themes among these writers were racial pride and resistance to prejudice

  34. Langston Hughes • Poet, essayist, and playwright Langston Hughes—one of the best-known writers of the Harlem Renaissance • Came to national attention in 1921 at the age of 19 when his poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” appeared in The Crisis • In 1925 he won a poetry prize from Opportunity magazine • One of the leading figures of the Harlem Renaissance • Produced poems, plays, and novels focusing on black life and culture; believed that black writers should express their “individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame.” • Works used African American slang and musical rhythms and expressed the joy, suffering, and pride of being a black American • Hughes wrote until his death in 1967; celebrated as leading writer in American literature

  35. Other Writers and Poets • Another gifted Harlem writer James Weldon Johnson • Co-wrote the song “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” which became the official NAACP anthem • A political activist, Johnson helped organize anti-lynching activities for the NAACP and pushed for the passage of the Dyer Bill • Some consider his God’s Trombones, a collection of African American sermons written in verse, among the finest Harlem Renaissance works • Claude McKay • Claude McKay considered the spokesperson for the more militant group of young black writers during this period • One most famous poems, “If We Must Die,” deals with violence of the Red Summer of 1919; one of the first Renaissance writers to gain widespread success • 1928 best-selling novel, Home to Harlem, most successful novel by an African American writer up to that time

  36. Zora Neale Hurston • Major contributor to the new literary movement in Harlem • Hurston’s writing influenced byfolklore, or traditional stories, sayings, and other art forms • 1935 of Mules and Men, a collection gathered during FL study • Novelist • Hurston wrote plays, novels, and short stories; most famous novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, about a young black woman in the early 1900s still feeling the legacy of slavery and discrimination • Other female writers emerged • Other Writers • As literary editor for The Crisis, Jessie Redmon Fauset helped promote the careers of writers and was a successful novelist herself • Another celebrated Harlem writer Nella Larsen often focused on the lives of African American women • Literary Movement • Spread beyond New York • Black writers were inspired to publish their own works, contributing to the revitalization of black culture • Writers outside the United States were influenced

  37. Reading Check Summarize What topics did writers of the Harlem Renaissance address? Answer(s): They often addressed black life and culture, including politics, folklore, and society.

  38. Musicians, Artists, and Performers Literature was not the only focus of the Harlem Renaissance. African American musicians, artists, and performers also took center stage in Harlem in the early 1900s. • The Jazz Age • Late 1920s, Harlem was the hotspot for a new form of music called jazz • Birth traced back to turn-of-the-century New Orleans • African American musicians blended several musical styles, including spirituals, blues, ragtime, marching band music, hillbilly music, and various European traditions • New Music • New, different, and wholly original American form of music • Jazz traveled to northern cities like Chicago and New York • A jazz song might start with a known melody or theme, but much of the music was composed on the spot • Jazz could be fast to slow, and it was easy to dance to

  39. Louis Armstrong • Jazz was by its spirit and creativity; “Man, if you have to ask what it is,” legendary jazz musician Louis Armstrong once stated, “you’ll never know” • A leading performer on the Harlem jazz scene, Louis Armstrong was played at the Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club • Jazz fans invented new dance steps as the music inspired them, including the jitterbug and the Lindy Hop (named after Charles Lindbergh) • Jazz fans also came to Harlem to see Bessie Smith, “the Empress of the Blues” • As a teenager, Smith sang her own “down-home” version of the blues in small cafes throughout the South; by 1923, she signed with Columbia Records; her first release, “Down-Hearted Blues,” sold over 2 million copies • Smith would record with all of the top Jazz Age musicians and earn an incredible $2,000 a week for her performances; together with Louis Armstrong, she is credited with developing the tradition of jazz singing

  40. Black Artists • Black painters, sculptors, photographers, and filmmakers contributed to the creative energy in Harlem during the 1920s and 1930s • Artists united by a desire to create art that expressed the history and experiences of African Americans • Painter Aaron Douglas was among the leading artists of the Harlem Renaissance • Often called the “father of African American art,” Douglas first black artist to experiment with modernism and to use symbols from African art in his paintings, murals, and illustrations • By contrast, sculptor and art educator Augusta Savage crafted stunningly realistic symbols of black pride and aspirations • Harlem Renaissance artists—Loïs Mailou Jones, James VanDerZee, and William H. Johnson to name a few—captured the black experience

  41. Black Performers • African American performers took part in theatrical productions in Harlem • 1917 an all-black group of actors gained praise for their performances in a series of one-act plays • 1921 production of Shuffle Along; written, performed, and produced by blacks • Musical brought African American theater to popularity • African American performers got their start in New York theater • Tap dancer Bill “Bojangles” Robinson starred in vaudeville—a sort of early variety show that combined acting, music, and comedy • Actor Paul Robeson also drew critical acclaim for his dramatic performances

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