Health Indicators • Mortality indicators • Morbidity indicators • Disability rates • Nutritional status indicators • Health care delivery indicators • utilization rates • Indicators of social and mental health • Environmental indicators • Socio-economic indicators • Health policy Indicators • Indicators of quality of life • other indictors
Utilization rates • Proportion of infants who are “fully Immunized” against the 7 EPI diseases. • Proportion of pregnant women who receive antenatal care, or have their deliveries supervised by a trained birth attendant. • Percentage of the population using various methods of family planning. • Bed-occupancy rate (i.e., average daily in-patient /average number of beds). • Average length of stay (i.e., days of care rendered / discharges). • Bed turn-over ratio (i.e., discharges/average beds).
Socio-economic indicators • Rate of population increase • Per capita GNP • Level of unemployment • Dependency ratio • Literacy rates, especially female literacy rate • Family size. • Housing: the number of persons per room • Per capita “calorie” availability • Working conditions • Income distribution
SOCIAL INDICATORS 1.POPULATION 2.FAMILY FORMATION & HOUSEHOLD 3.EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES 4.EARNING ACTIVITIES 5.SOCIAL SECURITY & FAMILY WELFARE 6.HEALTH SERVICES 7.NUTRITION 8.INCOME DISTRIBUTION 9.ENVIRONMENT 10. PUBLIC ORDER & SAFETY 11.TIME USE AND LEISURE, RECREATION 12.SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND MOBILITY
Health Policy Indicators • Political commitment to health for all • Resource allocation, GNP spent • Degree of equity distribution of health services. • Community Involvement • Organization frame work • Managerial Process.
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Improve Maternal Health & reduce child Mortality • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Achieve Universal Primary Education • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development
Health Care “Multitude of services rendered to individuals, families or communities by the agents of the health services or professions, for the purpose of promoting, maintaining, monitoring or restoring health.”
Characteristics of Health Care 1. Appropriateness 2. Comprehensiveness 3. Adequacy 4. Availability 5. Accessibility 6.Affordability 7. Feasibility
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE “Primary Health care is essential health care based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that that a country and community can afford to maintain in every stage of development in the sirit of self-reliance and self-reliance and self-determination:
COMPONENTS OR ELEMENTS • Education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of controlling and preventing them. • Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition. • An adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation. • Maternal and child health care including family planning. • Immunization against major infectious diseases. • Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases. • Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries. • Provision of essential drugs.
Key Concepts of Primary Health Care • EQUITY: Equity means everyone is entitled to receive care and that care should be according to need. • EFFECTIVENESS: Each primary health care activity should have a favorable effect be according to need. • EFFICIENCY: Primary health care programs should be low-cost and affordable.
Health related Millennium Development Goals and indicators • Goal:1/1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Goal : 2/4 Reduce child mortality • Goal : 3/5 Improve maternal health • Goal : 4/6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Goal : 5/7 Ensure environmental sustainability • Goal: 6/8 Develop a global partnership for development
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Reduce Child Mortality • Improve Maternal Health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development
Health System The “health system” is intended to deliver health services Medical Care “Medical Care refers chiefly to those personal services that are provided directly by a physician or rendered as a result of the physician’s instructions”
Levels of Health Care • Primary health care • Secondary Health Care • Tertiary Health Care