2 Absolute indicators ( indices ) :. • A ) Morbidity statistics • B ) Mortality statistics • C )Population ( annual ) growth rate • Relative indicators e.g. number of ORS sockets distributed during a year at different • places , EPI coverage at a certain place . • Measures of morbidity : • Incidence rate • Prevalence rate • Notification rate • Prematurity rate • Population growth rate = ( BR + IMR ) – ( DR + EMR ) • Where BR = birth rate , DR = death rate , IMR = immigration rate , EMR = emigration rate .
3. Definition of health indicators: • Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years that will be lived by those born alive into a population if the age –specific mortality rates persist, it is calculated from life tables . Life expectancy is a good indicator of socioeconomic development in a country, as an indicator of long survival , it can be considered as a positive health indicator . It has been adopted as a global health indicator . A minimum life expectancy of 60 years is the goal of HFA 2000 , in Saudi Arabia is 71.4( WHO 1997) .
4.Crude birth rate (CBR ) : Numerator\ Denominator= live births at a certain area and year \ midyear population at the same area and year * 1000 • Crude death rate ( CDR ) = number of deaths at a certain area and year \ midyear population at the same area and year * K , where K is a constant ,which =1000 • Infant mortality rate ( IMR ) = number of deaths of infants at a certain area and year \ total number of alive births at the same area and year * 1000 • An infant is a child under one year of age . • Maternal mortality rate ( MMR ) = number of deaths among mothers resulting from pregnancy labour, puerperium at a certain area and year \ number of alive births at the same area and year * 100000 • Puerperium is the period since childbirth up to the six week after delivery.
Cause –specific mortality rate ( CSMR ) = number of deaths from a certain disease \ total population at risk * 1000 • Proportionate mortality rate ( PMR ) = number of deaths due a certain cause \ number of deaths due to all causes * 1000 • Attack rate ( AR ) = number of cases of a disease \ total population at risk , for a limited period of observation * 1000 • AR is used only in acute conditions such as measles , whooping cough etc . • N.B : In Saudi Arabia , K =100000 is used in all health indicators • 5. Total fertility rate ( TFR ) = number of alive births at a certain area and year \ number of females in the childbearing age ( 15-49 ) at same area and year * 1000 • Case-fatality rate ( CFR ) = number of deaths from a disease \ number of cases of the disease * 1000
6. Basic health indicators as reported by WHO member state : Basic health indicators according to WHO N.B. Blank cells means there is no available data