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Immigration and Urbanization

Immigration and Urbanization

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Immigration and Urbanization

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  1. Immigration and Urbanization Movement of People and Development of cities

  2. The Great Migration • 46 million people left their home land • Why? • Economic Reasons • To escape political or religious persecution • 23 million or 56% came to U.S. • Why? • Belief that U.S. was a land of golden opportunities • Non-restrictive immigration policy

  3. Three Waves of Immigration • 1830-1860 • 1860-1890 • 1890-1920

  4. Living in the Cities • Positives • Settlement houses to help homeless • Political machines – helped immigrants find jobs + housing; exchange for vote • Negatives • Crowded housing • Transportation • Crime • Sanitation • fire

  5. Living in the Cities • Political Machines • Organized group that controlled activities of political party in a city • Offered services to voters in exchange for political support • Organized like a pyramid • Bottom = local precinct workers who reported to Ward boss • Ward boss worked to secure vote in all precincts & reported to city boss (ex. Boss Tweed) • Racial Issues • Booker T. Washington – believed economic equality 1st then political • W.E.B. Dubois – wanted political equality immediately; helped form N.A.A.C.P. • 1896 – Plessy vs. Ferguson; estab. “separate but equal” doctrine

  6. Ethnic Enclaves & Tenements

  7. Urban Problems • Housing • Transportation • Crime • Sanitation • Fire

  8. Possible Solutions • Settlement Houses • Political Machines

  9. Beginnings of Civil Rights • WEB DuBois • Booker T Washington • Plessy v Ferguson

  10. Development of a New Mass Culture • More Leisure Time • More Information • Better ways to Buy and Sell

  11. Mass Culture cont’d • Mass Circulation of Papers • Newspaper circulation up 9xs betw. 1870-1900 • Newspaper chains & national press emerged w/ standardized news across country • “yellow journalism” – sensationalized stories w/ goal to sell papers • Literature & the Arts • Realism & naturalism = major influences on American writers • Influenced by growth of industry & rise of city • T. Dreiser & M. Twain • Art – most major cities had museums; Ashcan school = urban society • Ex. Thomas Eakins, E. Hopper

  12. Mass Culture • New Means of Buying & Selling • Increased purchasing power; middle class emerged • Dev. of affordable products & new merchandising techniques • Amer. Learned to buy/prepare food differently w/ canned goods & refrigeration • Mail Order Catalog – Sears & Roebuck; Montgomery Ward; people ordered from catalogs for products these stores sold

  13. What do you see????

  14. Uncle Sam • striped pants • stars on vest • stars & strips top hat • white hair and beard Personification of the United States