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  1. Prototyping Minder Chen Professor of MIS California State University Channel Islands

  2. Design Thinking Process by Stanford / IDEO “To create meaningful innovations, you need to know your users. Empathize and care about their lives.” “It’s not about coming up with the ‘right’ idea, it’s about generating the broadest range of possibilities.” “Build to think and test to learn.” “Framing the right problem is the only way to create the right solution.” IDEO: Inspiration  Ideation  Implementation “Testing is an opportunity to learn about your solution/assumptions and your user.”

  3. What Is a Prototype?

  4. Quick (Low-Fidelity) Prototyping Think with your hands. Building to think. “Like this?” With Doctors, For Doctors Fail often to succeed sooner. See also: Read the IDEO Difference (link)

  5. Final Design “Mm, yes like that.” Developed for Gyrus ACMI, ENT Division

  6. Prototypes Eric Ries, author of The Lean Startup, calls such a prototype a minimum viable product, or MVP—representing the least amount of effort needed to run an experiment and get feedback. Creativity requires cycling lots of ideas. The more you invest in your prototype and the closer to “final” it is, the harder it is to let go of a concept that’s not working. Prototyping quickly and cheaply also allows you to keep multiple concepts alive longer. 

  7. Importance of a Prototype or MVP Boyle’s Law (named after one of IDEO’s master prototypers, Dennis Boyle): Never go to a meeting without a prototype. Demo or Die (MIT Media Lab's founding director, Nicholas Negroponte) Deploy or Die (Current MIT Media Lab's director Joi Ito)

  8. Why Designers Should Never Go to a Meeting Without a Prototype a project with Sesame Workshop to develop Elmo’s Monster Maker—an iPhone app that leads young children through the process of designing their own monster friend. They had an idea for a new dance feature in which kids could guide Elmo through different dance moves in sync with a simple music track.  Link

  9. When to Prototype & Fidelity of Prototype

  10. Prototyping Take an abstract idea, and make it feel as real as possible. A prototype can be very simple, e.g., a sketch or a story. Design thinking’s early prototypes are almost always just two-dimensional and take the form of things like storyboards and videos. A prototype lets us walk a stakeholder through a new and more tangible experience. A good prototype is to have a great conversation and learn. It's not to model a finished product. Michael Schrage said “prototypes are not dress rehearsals, they're playgrounds.”

  11. Prototype: Why? to gain empathy to explore to test to inspire understand the design space build to think test and refine solutions inspire with your prototype

  12. Why Prototype? (link)

  13. Prototype: How? prototype resolution should match the progress of your development identify the variable you want to explore create experiences let go of your prototypes

  14. How to Prototype (link)

  15. Prototyping Process Prototyping is an active process involving building, testing, learning, and iterating. Make It, Learn from Failure, & Iterate, Iterate, Iterate. Instead of hiding out in our workshops, betting that an idea, product, or service will be a hit, we quickly get out in the world and let the people we’re designing for be our guides. Human-centered design is a process that starts with the people you’re designing for and ends with new solutions that are tailor-made to suit their needs. Building prototypes gives you a chance to get your ideas out of your head and into the hands of the people you’re designing for.

  16. Tips of Prototyping Keep It Simple and Scrappy to Start Don’t Get Too Attached to Your Idea Go for Quantity Listen to Your Audience

  17. MVP

  18. Types of Prototypes • Physical Prototypes: Function vs. Form • User interface, functionality, performance, • Service Prototypes: Explore the underlying roles, processes, and tools of an experience. • Person-to-Person vs. Person-to-Technology • Environment Prototypes: Prototyping a space simulates the experience of being in and interacting with a surrounding environment, like a building or outdoor space.

  19. Prototype Fidelity and Representations : What? product works like service/ experience story space looks like interacts like

  20. Prototype Early & Often Too Late $ Cost of an Error Project Risk Prototype, Fail * Learn Here # of Build & Test Cycles Launch Project Timeline

  21. Prototyping for Physical and Digital Products,

  22. GUI and Mouse Doug Engelbart of the Augmentation Research Center in Palo Alto developed the computer mouse and graphical user interfaces.

  23. Xerox PARC and Apple Macintosh Following PARC the first GUI-centric computer operating model was the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981, followed by the Apple Lisa (which presented the concept of menu bar as well as window controls) in 1983, the Apple Macintosh 128K in 1984, and the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga in 1985.

  24. A Mighty Mouse SRI had licensed the mouse patent to Apple for something like $40,000." the Xerox mouse had three buttons, was complicated, cost $300/$400 apiece, and didn’t roll around smoothly Jobs went to a local industrial design firm, Hovey-Kelley Design (i.e., IDEO now), and told one of its founders, Dean Hovey, that he wanted a simple single button model that cost $15, and he want to be able to use it on Formica and his blue jeans. “take a piece of technology developed by some of Silicon Valley’s greatest minds, dramatically improve its reliability and cut its price by more than 90 percent.”

  25. Design of the Mouse: IDEO • The mouse, Hovey says, “had the right balance of • mechanical design, • ergonomic design, • software design • and electronic design • that really mapped well with the generalist, mini-da Vincis that Hovey-Kelley had. Even down to the tactile aspect of the click.”

  26. Design via Prototyping Hovey estimated their consulting fee at thirty-five dollars an hour; the whole project cost perhaps a hundred thousand dollars. Construction play Thinking with Your Hands Low-resolution prototype

  27. Who Invented the Mouse? • Creative Visionary: Doug Engelbart at SRI • Inventor of New Products: Xerox PARC • A decentralized, bottom-up entrepreneurial culture • Innovator for Commercial Market: Apple • Organizations with resource constraint and constant threat

  28. Design with Intention Designers always act with intention. While others may unconsciously go with the default option, design thinkers make everything a conscious and original choice: from how they arrange their bookshelf to how they present their work. Steve Jobs never took the path of least resistance. He never accepted the world “as is.” He did everything with intentionality. No detail was too small to escape his attention.  (Link)

  29. Rapid Prototyping Google Glass Google glass Watch Google X Co-Founder Tom Chi talk about the use of prototyping while developing one of Google’s innovations.




  33. Quick Prototyping on a Tennis Court Plan the whole kitchen layout on a tennis court

  34. Quick Prototyping on a Tennis Court Choreograph the whole operations on a tennis court

  35. Speedee System • “Speed” that is the name of the game. • Drive-in restaurants 30m 30s • The Henry Ford of the fast food!  Assembly Line

  36. Assembly Line The Speedee System used lots of unskilled workers, each of whom did one small, specific step in the food-preparation process.  Hiring is easier and Reducing the labor costs

  37. Special Equipment